goiter


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Related to goiter: colloid goiter, toxic goiter, multinodular goiter

goiter:

see thyroid glandthyroid gland,
endocrine gland, situated in the neck, that secretes hormones necessary for growth and proper metabolism. It consists of two lobes connected by a narrow segment called the isthmus. The lobes lie on either side of the trachea, the isthmus in front of it.
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Goiter

 

in man, enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by the proliferation of its functional lymphoid tissue (parenchyma) or of its connective-tissue stroma. The proliferation of thyroid epithelium may embrace the entire thyroid parenchyma (diffuse goiter), or it may originate in a particular portion of the parenchyma (nodular goiter). Slight enlargement of the gland may occur in puberty or during menstruation, pregnancy, and lactation. Goiter may be associated with a number of conditions—diffuse toxic goiter, thyroiditis, thyroid tumor, and sporadic and endemic goiter.

A goiter may be unilateral or bilateral. Most often it is found in the neck; sometimes it is located behind the sternum (substernal goiter). A goiter usually alters the contours of the neck; although with substernal and deep-lying goiters the contours of the neck may remain normal. A goiter results in malfunction of the thyroid gland, but in the euthyroid form there need not be any functional impairment. Sporadic goiter is found in a number of localities and is caused by an endogenous (depending on internal factors) iodine deficiency in the body. Endemic goiter is found in certain biogeochemical areas where there is an insufficiency of iodine in the air, water, soil, and food products (instead of 200–220 μg, 20–80 μg of iodine or less enters the human body). Insufficiency of iodine in the environment may be aggravated by unfavorable exogenous (social, everyday, and sanitary-hygienic conditions) or endogenous (pregnancy, lactation, hypovitaminoses, helminthiases) factors. Iodine deficiency may result from infectious diseases or intoxications. A relative deficiency may occur when the ratio of iodine to certain chemical compounds (calcium, fluorine, and so forth) in the body is upset. Endemic goiter is found in almost every country, especially in mountainous regions, valleys, foothills, and watersheds and in swampy, sandy, and peaty regions. It is almost never found in chernozem zones.

Goiter prevention includes correcting unhealthy conditions in the throat and mouth, vermifuge treatment, and improvement of the conditions of sanitation and hygiene of daily life (keeping dwellings clean, maintaining the water supply properly, sound nutrition); individual and group iodine prophylaxis (iodized table salt); and early detection and dispensary observation of goiter patients. Treatment, depending on the form and symptoms of goiter, includes iodine preparations, thyroidin, triiodothyronine, and diiodothyrosine. Surgery is indicated for nodular and mixed goiter; it is also recommended for diffuse goiter if more conservative treatment proves ineffective.

L. M. GOL’BER

goiter

[′gȯid·ər]
(medicine)
An enlargement of all or part of the thyroid gland; may be accompanied by a hormonal dysfunction.

goitre

(US), goiter
Pathol a swelling of the thyroid gland, in some cases nearly doubling the size of the neck, usually caused by under- or overproduction of hormone by the gland
References in periodicals archive ?
Total goiter was determined by palpation based on the following grades: grade 0, no palpable or visible goiter; grade 1, goiter palpable but not visible when neck is in the normal position; grade 2, goiter visible when neck is in the normal position [2].
Thyroid hemiagenesis with Graves' disease, Graves' ophthalmopathy and multinodular goiter.
6-mm diameter representing various thyroid nodules (27 goiter, 26 follicular adenoma, 8 follicular carcinoma, and 14 thyrotoxicosis), 5 normal thyroids, and 20 tissue cores from a wide variety of nonthyroid tissues on a single recipient paraffin block in a 24 X 18 grid (406 cores with several blanks) using 2 to 5 cores per donor block (Figure 1, A).
But in most cases, they can be traced to the following problems: abnormal thyroid growth, thyroid cancer, goiters and nodules within the thyroid which could lead to hypothyroidism (under-active thyroid) or hyperthyroidism (over-active thyroid).
The goiter was graded according to the criteria recommended by the joint WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 1994 (16) (grade 0, no goiter; grade 1, thyroid palpable but not visible; and grade 2, thyroid visible with neck in normal position).
Over the years since iodine and thyroid disease have been connected, the absence of goiter has been used as the index of iodine adequacy.
Graves disease and toxic multinodular goiter account for most cases in the elderly, (19,26,27) with the relative frequency of toxic nodular goiter being greater.
TSH, antibodies to thyroperoxidase and thyroglobulin, and the prevalence of goiter as identified on ultrasound examination in 50 women with breast cancer and 30 age-matched healthy controls.
Where the soil lacks iodine, thyroid deficiency and goiter are prevalent.
Early detection includes fine needle aspiration biopsy of solitary nodules, or of unusually prominent, hard or rapidly growing nodules in multinodular goiter," said Velarde.
She further informed the Iodine deficiency causes mental retardation, poor physical growth and deaf, short stature and goiter.
The second module was a listing of all household members, their characteristics and the results of goiter assessment for eligible members (all school-age children and women of reproductive age present in the household at the time of the interview).