goiter


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goiter:

see thyroid glandthyroid gland,
endocrine gland, situated in the neck, that secretes hormones necessary for growth and proper metabolism. It consists of two lobes connected by a narrow segment called the isthmus. The lobes lie on either side of the trachea, the isthmus in front of it.
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Goiter

 

in man, enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by the proliferation of its functional lymphoid tissue (parenchyma) or of its connective-tissue stroma. The proliferation of thyroid epithelium may embrace the entire thyroid parenchyma (diffuse goiter), or it may originate in a particular portion of the parenchyma (nodular goiter). Slight enlargement of the gland may occur in puberty or during menstruation, pregnancy, and lactation. Goiter may be associated with a number of conditions—diffuse toxic goiter, thyroiditis, thyroid tumor, and sporadic and endemic goiter.

A goiter may be unilateral or bilateral. Most often it is found in the neck; sometimes it is located behind the sternum (substernal goiter). A goiter usually alters the contours of the neck; although with substernal and deep-lying goiters the contours of the neck may remain normal. A goiter results in malfunction of the thyroid gland, but in the euthyroid form there need not be any functional impairment. Sporadic goiter is found in a number of localities and is caused by an endogenous (depending on internal factors) iodine deficiency in the body. Endemic goiter is found in certain biogeochemical areas where there is an insufficiency of iodine in the air, water, soil, and food products (instead of 200–220 μg, 20–80 μg of iodine or less enters the human body). Insufficiency of iodine in the environment may be aggravated by unfavorable exogenous (social, everyday, and sanitary-hygienic conditions) or endogenous (pregnancy, lactation, hypovitaminoses, helminthiases) factors. Iodine deficiency may result from infectious diseases or intoxications. A relative deficiency may occur when the ratio of iodine to certain chemical compounds (calcium, fluorine, and so forth) in the body is upset. Endemic goiter is found in almost every country, especially in mountainous regions, valleys, foothills, and watersheds and in swampy, sandy, and peaty regions. It is almost never found in chernozem zones.

Goiter prevention includes correcting unhealthy conditions in the throat and mouth, vermifuge treatment, and improvement of the conditions of sanitation and hygiene of daily life (keeping dwellings clean, maintaining the water supply properly, sound nutrition); individual and group iodine prophylaxis (iodized table salt); and early detection and dispensary observation of goiter patients. Treatment, depending on the form and symptoms of goiter, includes iodine preparations, thyroidin, triiodothyronine, and diiodothyrosine. Surgery is indicated for nodular and mixed goiter; it is also recommended for diffuse goiter if more conservative treatment proves ineffective.

L. M. GOL’BER

goiter

[′gȯid·ər]
(medicine)
An enlargement of all or part of the thyroid gland; may be accompanied by a hormonal dysfunction.

goitre

(US), goiter
Pathol a swelling of the thyroid gland, in some cases nearly doubling the size of the neck, usually caused by under- or overproduction of hormone by the gland
References in periodicals archive ?
Various reports have indicated that the incidence of thyroid carcinoma in multinodular goiter is between 8.
An increase in TSH concentration also results in thyroid enlargement and, thus, goiter (3).
KEY WORDS: Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve; Thyroidectomy; Goiter.
While in Prasad's study 2 cases of colloid goiter was misdiagnosed, and in Mitra and Pathak's study and Kamaljit Kaur's study 2 and 1, respectively, cases of adenomatous goiter were misdiagnosed.
We also found that the nodules in our study entered a steady state after the appearance of the “onion skin-liked sign,” a typical layered structure with hypoechogenicity and hyperechogenicity alternatively distributing from the edge to the center of the nodule, which may be indicator of the endpoint of natural development of nodular goiter.
Retrosternal goiter located in the mediastinum: surgical approach and operative difficulties.
Goiter and environmental iodine deficiency in the UK-Derbyshire: a review.
The most common cause of goiter and acquired hypothyroidism is hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) in children and adolescents especially in regions where endemic iodine deficiency is not found (1).
Five-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial of total thyroidectomy versus Dunhill operation versus bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy for multinodular nontoxic goiter.
These may be useful in patients with recurrent goiter, Graves' disease, substernal goiter, patients on anticoagulants2,5,6,11-13.
In case of suspicion, go for biopsy of the dominant nodule in case of multinodular goiter.