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An instrument for determining the direction of maximum response to a received radio signal, or selecting the direction of maximum radiation of a transmitted radio signal; consists of two fixed perpendicular coils, each attached to one of a pair of loop antennas which are also perpendicular, and a rotatable coil which bears the same space relationship to the coils as the direction of the signal to the antennas.
An instrument used to measure the angles between crystal faces.
An instrument which uses x-ray diffraction to measure the angular positions of the axes of a crystal.
Any instrument for measuring angles.



(1) In physics, an instrument for measuring the angles between the planes of crystals, and also for measuring the angles of various prisms. Crystals can be distinctively characterized by the angles between their facets. Before the discovery of X-ray structural analysis, the method of measuring crystals with a goniometer was the main means of diagnosing crystalline substances. It was later superseded to a considerable degree by X-ray structural analysis.

Goniometers may be of the contact or reflecting types. The simplest contact goniometer consists of a protractor attached

Figure 1. Single-disk reflecting goniometer: (a) overall view; (b) diagram. C is the collimator, T is the viewing tube, L is the limb, ν is the vernier, and N1 and N2 are normals corresponding to facets a and b. to a ruler; it permits measurement of angles with an accuracy of 0.25°-0.5°. A more precise reflecting goniometer is shown in Figure I.

A crystal attached to a rotating axis is illuminated by a collimated beam of light, and the rays reflected from its facets are observed in sequence by looking into a viewing tube T (a single-circle goniometer). The angles of rotation of the crystal are read from a scale. In more advanced two-circle goniometers (developed by Fedorov, Gol’dshmidt, and Chapskii), the crystal or the viewing tube can be rotated about two axes. The precision of measurement is to within l’ to 10’-20’.


Flint, E. E. Prakticheskoe rukovodstvo po geometricheskoi kristallografii, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1956.
Flint. E. E. Nachala kristallografii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1961.


(2) In anthropology, a goniometer is an instrument for measuring angles of curvature of the spine, the facial angle, the angle of the nose, and so on. A contact goniometer consists of a graduated metal plate in the form of an arc; its ends are joined by a transverse plate with a rotating pointer with a plumb bob attached to its center. The goniometer is attached to dividers (for example, of the sliding type), and the size of the angle being measured is determined by the distance of deflection of the pointer from the vertical.


i. A direction-finding device commonly used in radio location and radio navigation. It has a fixed antenna, and the direction response is varied electrically. Using a method called phase comparison, it senses the angle between a fixed reference point and the direction from which a radio signal is being received. See automatic direction finder.
ii. A motor-driven instrument used with four stationary aerials to a deliver rotating signal field for VOR (very high frequency omnidirectional radio-range).
References in periodicals archive ?
For each of the hand postures, we collected measurements three times and for 5 seconds for each trial using the glove and goniometer.
However, it must be taken into account that the diffractograms were obtained only in one direction, as the samples were placed on a fixed goniometer.
The D8 systems also offer the widest range of proven goniometer options, including the open access and convenience of the FIXED-CHI, or the ultimate performance and flexibility of the KAPPA geometry.
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At the point of maximum stretch, a second investigator fixed the goniometer halfway between the greater trohanter and the lateral epicondyle of the thigh (Heyward, 2005).
Every major element of Empyrean is new: the X-ray source, the state-of-the-art goniometer, new sample stages, the radiation enclosure, and the world's first 3D detection system, PIXcel(3D).
Measurements of the contact angle were performed by goniometer NPL C.
Ankle dorsiflexion range was measured using a gravity goniometer as the subject performed a weight-bearing lunge.
Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) was performed using a Siemens D5000 goniometer, functioning at 40kV and 30 mA, using Fe-filtered Co-[K.
Award criteria: The most economically advantageous tender in terms of the criteria stated below: Technical value (underweight and 10% security and compliance; And detector goniometer 10%; 10% X-ray source; 10% cooling circuit; 10% Computer and software; 5% sample holder and accessories; 5%) documentation: 60% - Price (underweight and 20% price of the equipment; 5% price of preventive maintenance contract) 25% - Maintenance, warranty and service: 10% - Delivery time: 5% -
To standardize the subject and equipment positions, markers were placed on the floor and the goniometer measured the position.
Additional improvements over film-based image review include the ability to window and invert, optimizing diagnostic detail; magnify and pan a region of interest or enlarge the image; and measure distances and anatomical angles using the built-in caliper and goniometer.