(redirected from goniometric)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.


An instrument for determining the direction of maximum response to a received radio signal, or selecting the direction of maximum radiation of a transmitted radio signal; consists of two fixed perpendicular coils, each attached to one of a pair of loop antennas which are also perpendicular, and a rotatable coil which bears the same space relationship to the coils as the direction of the signal to the antennas.
An instrument used to measure the angles between crystal faces.
An instrument which uses x-ray diffraction to measure the angular positions of the axes of a crystal.
Any instrument for measuring angles.



(1) In physics, an instrument for measuring the angles between the planes of crystals, and also for measuring the angles of various prisms. Crystals can be distinctively characterized by the angles between their facets. Before the discovery of X-ray structural analysis, the method of measuring crystals with a goniometer was the main means of diagnosing crystalline substances. It was later superseded to a considerable degree by X-ray structural analysis.

Goniometers may be of the contact or reflecting types. The simplest contact goniometer consists of a protractor attached

Figure 1. Single-disk reflecting goniometer: (a) overall view; (b) diagram. C is the collimator, T is the viewing tube, L is the limb, ν is the vernier, and N1 and N2 are normals corresponding to facets a and b. to a ruler; it permits measurement of angles with an accuracy of 0.25°-0.5°. A more precise reflecting goniometer is shown in Figure I.

A crystal attached to a rotating axis is illuminated by a collimated beam of light, and the rays reflected from its facets are observed in sequence by looking into a viewing tube T (a single-circle goniometer). The angles of rotation of the crystal are read from a scale. In more advanced two-circle goniometers (developed by Fedorov, Gol’dshmidt, and Chapskii), the crystal or the viewing tube can be rotated about two axes. The precision of measurement is to within l’ to 10’-20’.


Flint, E. E. Prakticheskoe rukovodstvo po geometricheskoi kristallografii, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1956.
Flint. E. E. Nachala kristallografii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1961.


(2) In anthropology, a goniometer is an instrument for measuring angles of curvature of the spine, the facial angle, the angle of the nose, and so on. A contact goniometer consists of a graduated metal plate in the form of an arc; its ends are joined by a transverse plate with a rotating pointer with a plumb bob attached to its center. The goniometer is attached to dividers (for example, of the sliding type), and the size of the angle being measured is determined by the distance of deflection of the pointer from the vertical.


i. A direction-finding device commonly used in radio location and radio navigation. It has a fixed antenna, and the direction response is varied electrically. Using a method called phase comparison, it senses the angle between a fixed reference point and the direction from which a radio signal is being received. See automatic direction finder.
ii. A motor-driven instrument used with four stationary aerials to a deliver rotating signal field for VOR (very high frequency omnidirectional radio-range).
References in periodicals archive ?
Midstance was defined in the software algorithm as 0[degrees] hip position from the Lokomat goniometric output.
clinician experience has an effect on accuracy of goniometric measurements; and 4.
With these optical crystallographic universal apparatuses, goniometric measurements, as well as determination of the optical axes and the position of the main axis of double-refracting crystal plates, could be made.
Most of these crystals are too small and narrow to permit measurements of their terminations, thus goniometric study is impossible in most cases.
The testers were blinded to MRI results, and made no attempt to incorporate MRI results or remember the goniometric values as additional testing was being conducted.
Given the dearth of data on demi-plies, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a specific practitioner intervention on the movement of demi-plie, when followed by a jump, using electromyographic, accelerometric and goniometric measurements.
To evaluate the flexibility of the posterior chain it was used the standard test bench sit and reach (Wells bench) and muscle extensibility hamstrings goniometric plank.
Athletes were assessed for measures of foot posture index-6, foot length and width, Beighton generalized joint laxity score, anterior drawer and talar tilt tests, star excursion and single leg balance tests and goniometric assessment of ankle plantarflexion, ankle dorsiflexion and first metatarsophalangeal dorsiflexion.
The evaluation of axial involvement included the occiput-to-wall distance, tragus-to-wall distance and goniometric assessment of the range of movement of the cervical spine.
There are many interesting apps focused on goniometric tools for angular measurement.
7,16 These in-consistencies and lack of accuracy may be due to inter-tester differences in measurement technique, including differences in patient and goniometric positioning.