Grace

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Related to graciousness: succinct, meant, peckish, commencing

Grace,

1929–82, princess consort of Monaco, b. Philadelphia as Grace Patricia Kelly. She acted on stage and television in New York, and made her film debut in 1951. Cool, blonde, and patrician, she became a major film star after her first Hollowood picture, High Noon (1952). Her major films include three released in 1954: Dial M For Murder and Rear Window, both directed by Alfred HitchcockHitchcock, Sir Alfred,
1899–1980, English-American film director, writer, and producer, b. London. Hitchcock began his career as a director in 1925 and became prominent with The 39 Steps (1935) and The Lady Vanishes (1938).
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, and The Country Girl, for which she won an Academy Award. She also starred in To Catch a Thief (1955), The Swan (1956), and High Society (1956), among others. She retired from moviemaking in 1956 when she married Rainier IIIRainier III
, 1923–2005, prince of Monaco (1949–2005), a member of the Grimaldi family, which has ruled the tiny principality since 1297. Fiercely anti-Nazi, Ranier served with distinction as an officer in the French Army during World War II.
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, the ruling prince of Monaco. Princess Grace died following an automobile accident (1982) in France.

Bibliography

See biographies by S. Bradford (1984), J. Spada (1987), R. Lacey (1994), J. Curtis (1998), and J. R. Taraborrelli (2003).


grace,

in Christian theology, the free favor of God toward humans, which is necessary for their salvation. A distinction is made between natural grace (e.g., the gift of life) and supernatural grace, by which God makes a person (born sinful because of original sinoriginal sin,
in Christian theology, the sin of Adam, by which all humankind fell from divine grace. Saint Augustine was the fundamental theologian in the formulation of this doctrine, which states that the essentially graceless nature of humanity requires redemption to save it.
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) capable of enjoying eternal life. In general, the term grace is restricted to supernatural grace, usually considered as the keystone of the whole Christian theological system.

Supernatural grace is usually defined as being actual or sanctifying. Actual grace turns the soul to God; sanctifying grace confirms and perpetuates the ends of this conversion and makes the soul habitually good. Most theologies (except in CalvinismCalvinism,
term used in several different senses. It may indicate the teachings expressed by John Calvin himself; it may be extended to include all that developed from his doctrine and practice in Protestant countries in social, political, and ethical, as well as theological,
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), wishing to maintain humanity's freedom in addition to God's complete freedom in granting grace, distinguish prevenient grace, which frees a person and awakens him or her to God's call, from cooperating grace, by which God assists to salvation the free person who seeks it.

When God seems to confer on a person such actual grace that his or her conversion appears inevitable, the grace is said to be efficacious. The apparent difficulty of claiming that grace may be efficacious while a person is free was explained by St. Thomas AquinasThomas Aquinas, Saint
[Lat.,=from Aquino], 1225–74, Italian philosopher and theologian, Doctor of the Church, known as the Angelic Doctor, b. Rocca Secca (near Naples).
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 on the ground that it was a peculiar nature of this grace granted to some people that it should be ineluctable; it was this doctrine that Luis MolinaMolina, Luis
, 1535–1600, Spanish Jesuit theologian. He taught at Coimbra and Évora. In 1589 he published Concordia, a work in which he expounded the doctrine known as Molinism.
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 and the Molinists disputed. Differing in effect from efficacious grace is merely sufficient grace, which, while sufficient to conversion, may be rejected by a person at will. Calvinism rejects merely sufficient grace, holding instead that grace is irresistible.

In every Christian theology God is considered to grant grace quite freely, since its gift is far greater than any person can merit. As to which persons are offered this grace, there is great difference. The generality hold that it is offered to people who place no obstacle in the way of salvation rather than to those who neglect what ways to grace they have been given; the Jansenists (see Jansen, CornelisJansen, Cornelis
, 1585–1638, Dutch Roman Catholic theologian. He studied at the Univ. of Louvain and became imbued with the idea of reforming Christian life along the lines of a return to St. Augustine.
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), however, believed that grace was not given outside the church, and the Calvinists hold that it is offered only to those predestined to election.

Sanctifying grace may be said to succeed justification as actual grace precedes it. The operation of sanctifying grace brings holiness to the individual soul. The indwelling of God in the soul and the soul's actual participation in God's nature (in an indefinable manner) are the perfections of sanctifying grace. As to the means, there is a serious cleavage in Christianity, notably in regard to sacramental grace. According to Roman Catholics and Orthodox, the grace accompanying a sacrament is ex opere operato, i.e., by God's ordinance the sacrament actually confers grace, the good disposition of the minister being unimportant and that of the recipient being not always a condition; Protestants hold that the sacraments are ex opere operantis, i.e., the faith of the recipient is all-important, and the sacrament is the sign, not the source of grace.

Certain Christian systems have developed quite different ideas of grace, and PelagianismPelagianism
, Christian heretical sect that rose in the 5th cent. challenging St. Augustine's conceptions of grace and predestination. The doctrine was advanced by the celebrated monk and theologian Pelagius (c.355–c.425). He was probably born in Britain.
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 has its advocates in liberal 20th-century Protestantism. The great emphasis on grace is a distinction of Christianity. In recent years among orthodox theologians there has been a renewed interest in the theology of grace. Among traditional usages, they distinguish three forms of grace: God's communication of Himself to the Christian soul is grace; the favorable attitude of God toward the soul is grace; the ontological modification of Christian life by God's favor is grace.

grace

1. Christianity
a. the free and unmerited favour of God shown towards man
b. the divine assistance and power given to man in spiritual rebirth and sanctification
c. the condition of being favoured or sanctified by God
d. an unmerited gift, favour, etc., granted by God
2. a short prayer recited before or after a meal to invoke a blessing upon the food or give thanks for it
3. Music a melodic ornament or decoration

Grace

1
W(illiam) G(ilbert). 1848--1915, English cricketer

Grace

2
a title used to address or refer to a duke, duchess, or archbishop
References in periodicals archive ?
Concluding his speech, President Aquino asked his colleagues to extend the same graciousness, understanding and friendship to his successor.
Not only did they win the tournament, but they did so with pride and graciousness.
Gracianna, named after the Amador's other great-grandmother Gracianna Lasaga, pays tribute to her value of gratitude and symbolizes everyday grace and graciousness.
There will be deep consternation right across the community in Northern Ireland at this finding that a Christian family, which has conducted itself with the utmost graciousness and dignity throughout this case, has been found guilty of discrimination.
The Minister of Information delivered the speech at the opening ceremony in which he said, "It is a great honour for me to stand here today congratulating you for the opening of this fair, participating with my colleagues on behalf of the Government of the Sultanate of Oman, adding that the Government of the Sultanate is happy with this graciousness and appreciation of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the selection of the Sultanate to be the guest of honour in Tehran International Book Fair 2015".
Mr Kidwai has been the personification of graciousness about the situation which is.
THIS graciousness from Blackpool is unlikely to be reciprocated by hard-liners of Gay Pride who, even now, I suspect, will be planning to sue a prestigious London hotel bought by Muslims for a wellheeled Muslim clientele.
We will provide our customers with impeccable service by demonstrating warmth, graciousness, efficiency, knowledge, professionalism and integrity in our work and maintain an eatery that is comprehensive and exceptional in its attention to every detail of operation and to keep our concept fresh, exciting and on the cutting edge of hospitality," says Akla.
The Right Reverend Chalmers was right when he said Scotland needs time to heal - and right too when he said all sides need to - act with "magnanimity and graciousness to restore equilibrium".
And also, as a gesture of graciousness, I'll leave them a stone carved with the words, "Bon appetit
We benefited from his wise counsel and probing questions, and admired his graciousness and professionalism.
He thanked each of them for their graciousness in accepting his invitation to attend the ceremony of oath taking and noted that this was a celebration of democracy in the region enriched by their presence," said Singh.