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a building or structure for storing grain. Granaries should reliably preserve the grain and protect it against atmospheric precipitation and from ground and surface water, rodents, and birds and should provide convenient loading and unloading of grain and monitoring of its condition. In tsarist Russia, the peasants stored grain in barns where the processes of receiving, cleaning, drying, and caring for the grain were mainly done manually. Market grain accumulated by merchants was stored in so-called labazy, which differed from barns (ambary) in their larger size. In the USSR today, various types of granaries are built, from very simple sheds to highly mechanized elevators. Granaries are subdivided into the floor, bin, and silo types.
In floor-type granaries, large quantities of the same kind of grain are stored directly on the floor. In the USSR granaries of this type with capacities of 250–5,500 tons are built at sovkhozes, kolkhozes, and grain-receiving areas. They are one-story buildings, usually rectangular, often with upper and lower galleries, in which loading and unloading mechanisms are installed. They have sloping or domed roofs and horizontal or sloping floors below ground level.
Small batches of grain from various crops and grades are stored in bin granaries, which are floor-type structures divided by partitions into individual sections (bins) or storehouses with bins that have inclined or conical bottoms.
Silo granaries are tall round or rectangular silos with conical bottoms. The most advanced types are grain elevators. Floor and bin granaries with sloping roofs are usually of frame construction. The frame is made of reinforced concrete, wood, or metal; the walls are made of reinforced concrete, brick, or other material; and the roof is usually made of corrugated asbestos-cement sheeting. Domed granaries are built of reinforced concrete. Common granaries in foreign countries include cylindrical floor-type granaries (Canada and the USA), high-rise granaries (Western Europe), and granaries with ceilings of guy-wire design.
In low-capacity floor and bin granaries, grain is loaded and unloaded by mobile devices such as conveyors and self-feeders. Stationary mechanisms that make possible the minimum expenditure of labor are used in large granaries. The grain is loaded by a band conveyor placed in the upper gallery. A tower is built at the front of the granary to receive the grain and deliver it to the upper conveyor. The tower is equipped with elevators, a loading tray, and a truck hoist. The grain is unloaded by a conveyor placed in the lower underground gallery. Most of the grain falls onto the conveyor by gravity flow; the rest is raked in by mobile devices. In silo and floor-type granaries with sloping floors all the grain is loaded onto the conveyors by gravity flow. Drying and cleaning towers with receiving and hoisting devices are built at grain-receiving areas and large farms to mechanize grain receiving, cleaning, drying, and delivery to granaries and un-loading from them. The towers are located at the ends of the granaries. The storage areas are connected to the receiving and hoisting devices by upper and lower conveyors. To store large quantities of grain several granaries are built end to end and separated by fire walls. For better preservation of grain, provision is made for ventilation in addition to the natural ventilation through the windows and doors and through the shafts with dampers that are installed along the apex of the building or through a horizontal trough inside the bin. The temperature of the grain in the granary is monitored by electrical thermometers whose readings appear on the control panel.
REFERENCESEpshtein, B. V. [et al.]. “Proektirovanie zernoskladov.” In Proektirovanie i stroitel’stvo zernokhranilishch, mukomol’nykh, krupianykh i kombikormovykh predpriiatii v SSSR. Moscow, 1958. Vorontsov, O. S. Elevatory, sklady i zernopererabatyvaiushchie predpriiatiia, part 1. Moscow, 1961.
Eksperimental’noe stroitel’stvo elevatorov i zernoskladov. Moscow, 1966.
A. B. KULAKOVSKII