grapheme


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grapheme

[′gra‚fēm]
(communications)
A pictorial representation of a semanteme, such as X-reference for cross-reference.

Grapheme

 

the smallest distinctive unit of written speech, corresponding to the phoneme in oral speech—a, b, and so on. The system of graphemes of a particular writing system makes up the system’s alphabet.

The grapheme must be distinguished from the letter, which corresponds to a sound of speech (A, a, a, and so on), and from a graphic combination (that is, a collection of letters), which is regularly used in the particular writing system to designate a certain phoneme (for example, ch represents the phonemes [#x222B;], [x], and [t∫] in the French, German, and English writing systems, respectively). The term “grapheme” was introduced in 1912 by I. A. Baudouin de Courtenay.

REFERENCES

Baudouin de Courtenay, I. A. Ob otnoshenii russkogo pis’ma krusskomu iazyku. St. Petersburg, 1912.
Volotskaia, Z. M., T. N. Moloshnaia, and T. M. Nikolaeva. Opyt opisaniia russkogo iazyka v ego pis’mennoi forme. Moscow, 1964.

A. G. SHITSGAL

grapheme

(1) See also graphene.

(2) A displayed or printed letter of the alphabet with all of its accent marks in place. See glyph.
References in periodicals archive ?
Omissions--stop placing graphemes which belong to the word (ex: galinha--galina).
Complex Long Vowel Vowel Consonant Graphemes Graphemes Patterns 12.
She noted that the act of spelling words encourages children to practice phonemic segmentation skills, which makes more obvious the relationship of graphemes to phonemes in reading words.
Ruoff, Colloidal suspension of highly reduced grapheme oxide in a variety of organic solvent, Nano Lett.
graphemes <r> and <s> intervocalic, which represent respectively, the phonemes /J/ <girafa> and /z/ <rosa>); (c) irregular, which refers to ambiguous matches, where a letter may be associated with more than one sound in a non-rule-governed manner (Pinheiro, 1999).
Arabic is a Semitic language written in a consonantal alphabet (or "abjad") with 29 basic graphemes, and it is read and written from right to left.
By calculating the propagation of surface plasmons, in the structures that are included single atomic grapheme sheets, separated by an insulting material, we can get that for separation distances about 20 nm, surface plasmons in graphen sheets interact with each other, so that they get together (see gig).
The third use of script is in transliteration, when the graphemes of a source script are converted into graphemes of a target script without any regard to pronunciation and also, at least in the strictest sense, without either adding or deleting any graphemes that are not present in the source script.
6) ou une adaptation au systeme de correspondances graphiques de l'italien a lieu par la substitution du dygramme <ou> par le grapheme <u>; dans le cas de dioula on rencontre aussi un changement typographique de la premiere lettre du majuscule au minuscule.
That is, reading strategies, based on usage of larger units than a grapheme, lead to a visual, more automated and lexical reading (Ehri, 2005).
The topics include a historical study of voice onset time in received pronunciation, the origin and function of the grapheme combination qu in English, words denoting kingdom in Layamon's Brut, female animals in fables by Robert Henryson and Biernat of Lublin, a synopsis of the main approaches to semantic change in linguistics through the 19th and 20th centuries, and the linguistic situation in Kenya according to Labov's social factors.
Jessica exhibits other forms of synesthesia including grapheme to color, time units to color such as weekday to color, month to color, spatial sequences, pain to color and numbers to personalities.