grapheme


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Related to grapheme: Graphene

grapheme

[′gra‚fēm]
(communications)
A pictorial representation of a semanteme, such as X-reference for cross-reference.

Grapheme

 

the smallest distinctive unit of written speech, corresponding to the phoneme in oral speech—a, b, and so on. The system of graphemes of a particular writing system makes up the system’s alphabet.

The grapheme must be distinguished from the letter, which corresponds to a sound of speech (A, a, a, and so on), and from a graphic combination (that is, a collection of letters), which is regularly used in the particular writing system to designate a certain phoneme (for example, ch represents the phonemes [#x222B;], [x], and [t∫] in the French, German, and English writing systems, respectively). The term “grapheme” was introduced in 1912 by I. A. Baudouin de Courtenay.

REFERENCES

Baudouin de Courtenay, I. A. Ob otnoshenii russkogo pis’ma krusskomu iazyku. St. Petersburg, 1912.
Volotskaia, Z. M., T. N. Moloshnaia, and T. M. Nikolaeva. Opyt opisaniia russkogo iazyka v ego pis’mennoi forme. Moscow, 1964.

A. G. SHITSGAL

grapheme

(1) See also graphene.

(2) A displayed or printed letter of the alphabet with all of its accent marks in place. See glyph.
References in periodicals archive ?
This methodology allows insight into the key drivers and restraints behind grapheme market dynamics and competitive developments.
Firstly, the child produced a better representational fit between phonemes and graphemes.
By calculating the propagation of surface plasmons, in the structures that are included single atomic grapheme sheets, separated by an insulting material, we can get that for separation distances about 20 nm, surface plasmons in graphen sheets interact with each other, so that they get together (see gig).
This shows thai monolayer grapheme nanosheets are much more effective in improving Tt of an epoxy system because they can more effectively restrict chain segmental mobility and reduce free volume.
Xu Shen points out when a guwen grapheme has come down unchanged into zhuanwen but is misunderstood because the word that the classifier wrote in guwen has taken on a different graphemic structure in zhuanwen (and hence the guwen grapheme is no longer understood properly as a classifier, because the original classifier-as-character-writing-the-word has been lost).
It can be presumed that graphemes ability for chemical modification can help tremendously towards its biological applications.
30) This is why electrical conductivity is perhaps the most reliable indicator of the extent to which graphite oxide has been reduced to grapheme.
When presented with an item (for example, a grapheme, digraph, cluster, or vowel), the children were asked to say the sound made by the item.
Electronic and geometric corrugation of periodically rippled, self-nanostructured grapheme epitaxially grown on Rui(0001);
The authors analyzed and compared five standardized spelling tests and their alternate forms (when available) according to the following categories: number of syllables, syllable types, consonant grapheme types, and vowel types represented in each word in each assessment.
It would take an elephant, balanced on a pencil, to break through a sheet of grapheme the thickness of Saran-Wrap[R]".