grapheme

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grapheme

[′gra‚fēm]
(communications)
A pictorial representation of a semanteme, such as X-reference for cross-reference.

Grapheme

 

the smallest distinctive unit of written speech, corresponding to the phoneme in oral speech—a, b, and so on. The system of graphemes of a particular writing system makes up the system’s alphabet.

The grapheme must be distinguished from the letter, which corresponds to a sound of speech (A, a, a, and so on), and from a graphic combination (that is, a collection of letters), which is regularly used in the particular writing system to designate a certain phoneme (for example, ch represents the phonemes [#x222B;], [x], and [t∫] in the French, German, and English writing systems, respectively). The term “grapheme” was introduced in 1912 by I. A. Baudouin de Courtenay.

REFERENCES

Baudouin de Courtenay, I. A. Ob otnoshenii russkogo pis’ma krusskomu iazyku. St. Petersburg, 1912.
Volotskaia, Z. M., T. N. Moloshnaia, and T. M. Nikolaeva. Opyt opisaniia russkogo iazyka v ego pis’mennoi forme. Moscow, 1964.

A. G. SHITSGAL

grapheme

(1) See also graphene.

(2) A displayed or printed letter of the alphabet with all of its accent marks in place. See glyph.
References in periodicals archive ?
The standard was expressed in, among others, a consolidated graphemic system whereby the functional interrelations between particular graphemes and phonemes remained relatively stable (even if these interrelations were complex), as well as in the consistent spelling of particular morphemic exponents of grammatical categories, derivational morphemes, as well as loanwords.
If stress assignment and the transcriptions of graphemic /e/ and /o/ in stressed syllables was manually verified or known in advance, a transcription success rate of 99.
Michel Chion's study of the acousmetre-effect (the disembodied voice) is reframed as evidence of the way the graphemic element of film precedes any illusion of voice-as-expressive.
Blending is a frequent and productive word-formation process that can be defined as follows: blending involves the coinage of a new lexeme by fusing parts of at least two other source words of which either one is shortened in the fusion and/or where there is some form of phonemic or graphemic overlap of the source words; some typical and well-known examples are given in (1).
These linguistic foundations include knowledge and awareness of orthography, phonology, and morphology, as well as clear and concise mental graphemic representations (Apel & Masterson, 2001; Masterson & Crede, 1999).
For example, if instructors approach the teaching of grammar from a broad perspective that includes not only form (morphosyntactic and lexical patters as well as phonemic and graphemic patterns) but also meaning (lexical and grammatical) and use (social context, linguistic discourse context and presuppositions about context) as Larsen-Freeman (2001: 252) has proposed, we will be in a better position to deal with accuracy and appropriateness issues simultaneously.
The poem's utterance is not the utterance the speaker desires; and the self-cancelling utterance of the germ and the self-cancelling hymen are further redoubled in the broken promises that cancel marriage between the speaker and Maud and in what Rowlinson terms the graphemic "O.
He argues that The Songlines evinces a concern for: "the impact of cultural bias on spatial perception and their more immediate interest in the relation that exists in different cultures between graphic (written) and graphemic (non-written) modes of spatial representation" (58).
There are many forms of writing down that are not "alphabetic," that are not based on graphemic analyses of phonological distinctions.
Particularly intriguing are those that derive from [-er] and are assigned masculine gender; it is entirely possible that the graphemic form (retained in memory) influences their assignment while the (r-colored) schwa is assigned phonologically to /a/.
A translation has occurred where the written word has supplanted the oral and then folded in upon itself, trapping Halloway within its graphemic structure.
The choice of words (or word fragments) is relatively arbitrary, but the effect is one of modularity - like graphemic tinker toys.