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A pictorial representation of a semanteme, such as X-reference for cross-reference.



the smallest distinctive unit of written speech, corresponding to the phoneme in oral speech—a, b, and so on. The system of graphemes of a particular writing system makes up the system’s alphabet.

The grapheme must be distinguished from the letter, which corresponds to a sound of speech (A, a, a, and so on), and from a graphic combination (that is, a collection of letters), which is regularly used in the particular writing system to designate a certain phoneme (for example, ch represents the phonemes [#x222B;], [x], and [t∫] in the French, German, and English writing systems, respectively). The term “grapheme” was introduced in 1912 by I. A. Baudouin de Courtenay.


Baudouin de Courtenay, I. A. Ob otnoshenii russkogo pis’ma krusskomu iazyku. St. Petersburg, 1912.
Volotskaia, Z. M., T. N. Moloshnaia, and T. M. Nikolaeva. Opyt opisaniia russkogo iazyka v ego pis’mennoi forme. Moscow, 1964.



(1) See also graphene.

(2) A displayed or printed letter of the alphabet with all of its accent marks in place. See glyph.
References in periodicals archive ?
Xu Shen points out when a guwen grapheme has come down unchanged into zhuanwen but is misunderstood because the word that the classifier wrote in guwen has taken on a different graphemic structure in zhuanwen (and hence the guwen grapheme is no longer understood properly as a classifier, because the original classifier-as-character-writing-the-word has been lost).
A detailed graphemic analysis of the KS editions reveals that their printers were characterised by different degrees of both consistency and subjection to the normative influence.
Initial acquisition of mental graphemic representations in children with language impairment.
the kind of conflation resulting in the blend: usually, blends result from a juxtaposition of the beginning of the first source word and the end of the second source word (with or without graphemic and/or phonemic overlap); I will call this process linear blending and the positions where the words fuse are hereafter referred to as breakpoints--however, in some much less frequent cases one source word is altered by some part of the other source word;
The subjective polygraphy of a phoneme increased as the number of subjects producing each graphemic alternative increased and as the graphemic alternatives were listed as more plausible by the subjects.
Riffer-Macek, Dora 1966 "The graphemic inventory of a Middle English manuscript", Studia Romanica et Anglica Zagrabiensia 21-22: 127-136.
While breadth refers to the amount of words known, depth of word knowledge includes "all word characteristics such as phonemic, graphemic, morphemic, syntactic, semantic, collocational and phraseological properties" (Quian, 2002, p.
It is possible that the phonemic approach allows for a direct route from the stimulus to the response, whereas the graphemic (shape) approach requires mediation (translation to sound) between the stimulus and the response (Millar, 1975, 1997).
The notion of a graphemic metonymy seems to be inherent in Antin's discussion of poetry as the "language art":
The ME text is an essentially diplomatic version (with obvious errors emended) of Troilus as found in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 61, retaining manuscript spelling (and graphemic distinctions).
The band name is certainly a deliberate representation involving graphemic play for atmospheric reasons, which is even taken further in the small picture of a crown put on both instances of <ae>.
The four main chapters of the book are dedicated to graphemic and orthographic peculiarities (chapter 3), phonological (chapter 4), morphological (chapter 5), syntactic (chapter 6), and semantic (chapter 7) variations.