That's the case with Eris, which likely got flung into its nearly 600-yearlong orbit after a gravitational encounter
with Neptune eons ago.
Ransom and his colleagues conclude that the pulsar must have switched partners with another binary during a gravitational encounter
About 2 1/2 million years ago, two binary stars had a close gravitational encounter
in the Trapezium star cluster at the heart of the Great Orion Nebula.
Thanks to a recent gravitational encounter
with Jupiter, Hale-Bopp will return a scant 2,400 years from now.
External mechanisms, the research team notes, include drag generated from an infalling galaxy within a cluster of galaxies, which pulls gas away; multiple gravitational encounters
with other galaxies and the dense surrounding environment, resulting in material being stripped away from the galaxy; and the halting of the supply of cold gas to the galaxy, thus strangling the galaxy of the material needed to produce new stars over a prolonged period of time.
Several loss mechanisms are possible, including ram-pressure stripping by intracluster gas, gravitational interactions with other galaxies within the cluster, and gas outflows due to simultaneous supernova explosions triggered by the ram pressure or gravitational encounters
More complicated models and new results follow, with a theory of gravitational encounters
developed in some detail, loss-cone dynamics, collisional evolution of nuclei with perturbational and mass-driven expansion.
Both are sibling-rivalry victims suffering from past gravitational encounters
The misalignments attest to rough-and-tumble histories and may suggest that life flourished on Earth because the solar system avoided the brunt of close gravitational encounters
Both are sibling-rivalry victims suffering from mutual gravitational encounters
Within some 250 million years, these maverick planets were swallowed up or flung away by gravitational encounters
with the giants.
The only way theorists can account for these wayward trajectories is by assuming that direct collisions combined with close gravitational encounters