green revolution


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Green Revolution,

term referring mainly to dramatic increases in cereal-grain yields in many developing countries beginning in the late 1960s, due largely to use of genetically improved varieties. Beginning in the mid-1940s in Mexico researchers led by American Norman E. BorlaugBorlaug, Norman Ernest
, 1914–2009, U.S. agronomist, b. near Saude, Iowa, grad. Univ. of Minn. (Ph.D., 1942). He worked as researcher with the E. I. du Pont Company until 1944, when he joined the Rockefeller Foundation in Mexico.
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 developed broadly adapted, short-stemmed, disease-resistant wheats that excelled at converting fertilizer and water into high yields. The improved seeds were instrumental in boosting Mexican wheat production and averting famine in India and Pakistan, earning Borlaug the 1970 Nobel Peace Prize. Significant though less dramatic improvements followed in corn. The Mexican program inspired a similarly successful rice-research effort in the Philippines and a network of research centers dedicated to the important food crops and environments of the developing world. More recent research has sought to respond to criticism that the Green Revolution depends on fertilizers, irrigation, and other factors that poor farmers cannot afford and that may be ecologically harmful; and that it promotes monocultures and loss of genetic diversity.

green revolution

the introduction of new species of crops and new techniques leading to greater crop yields. This began in Mexico in the 1950s, and from the mid-1960s new high-yielding varieties of rice and wheat were introduced in many THIRD WORLD countries. The most noticeable applications were in the Indian subcontinent where new strains of rice enabled double-cropping, eliminating a fallow period in the agricultural cycle. For a while these innovations were seen by many as solving food-supply problems. However, new problems arose, one of the most significant being that the new strains require heavy inputs of fertilizer, pesticides and machinery For Third World countries, these can be very expensive imports, and small farmers have been unable to gain access to the credit financing necessary for full advantage to be taken. Generally a p rocess of increasing impoverishment of poor farmers has resulted, with increasing income inequalities, a concentration of landholding and variable increases in food supplies. As Griffin (1979) points out, this was an example of a technological fix approach based on assumptions that technical solutions can operate independently of the institutional environment. He sums up by saying ‘the story of the green revolution is the story of a revolution that failed’. see also INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY.
References in periodicals archive ?
If we stand together - governments, civil society, the private sector, the scientific community and farmers - and sustain our efforts, a unique African Green Revolution is within our grasp.
If we accept the arguments and data presented by the studies referred to above and also keep in mind the rapid progress made by technological innovations in Pakistan, we may well agree with the conclusion that, following the inception of Green Revolution in the early Sixties, land distribution has deteriorated considerably (or land concentration has increased notably) in Pakistan.
According to Mwichuli, it is paramount for countries in Africa to spearheaded African green revolution to deal with food insecurity and create sustainable businesses for small-scale farmers.
Mukherjee had announced a proposal for providing Rs 400 crore under the "Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana" while presenting the 2010 Budget for extending green revolution to the eastern region of the country comprising Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and West Bengal.
The Global Green Revolution 2009 will feature keynotes, live interviews, success stories, roundtables, and case studies on strategic issues that point out real market opportunities for integrating green strategy into business plans.
This program expanded and would later become know as the Green Revolution.
Under his leadership, AGRA has made significant achievements and is already firmly on track to achieve its mission of catalysing the achievement of a green revolution in Africa.
He said that Rs 400 crore allocated for extending the Green Revolution in six eastern states was not enough.
To request a copy of "A Green Revolution in the Way We Communicate," to learn more about the new paradigm in marketing communications, contact NM Marketing Communications at info@nmmarketingbiz.
Although the critics of the Green Revolution are yet to be convinced that this "revolution" was as "green" as is popularly believed, one certainly finds the increases in per acre yields of wheat and (coarse) rice in the late Sixties unprecedented in the history of Pakistan's agriculture.
IDRC previously contributed CA$300,000 to the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa to organize three earlier AGRFs.
Islamabad -- No nation could achieve sustainable development without ensuring healthy environment and government was working on many initiatives to bring green revolution in the country, observed Mushahidullah Khan, Federal Minister for Climate Change while inaugurating tree plantation campaign at I-10 Industrial Area, Islamabad.

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