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process by which surface material is removed from an object, usually metal, by the abrasive action of a rotating wheel or a moving belt that contains abrasive grains. A grinding wheel can be made by mixing a bonding material, usually clay, with abrasive grains of such substances as silicon carbide or aluminum oxide. The mixture is then shaped into a wheel and hardened. A grindstone is a grinding wheel made by shaping naturally occurring sandstone, which contains abrasive quartz grains. Grinding is used in many manufacturing processes to produce a fine surface finish on an object and to bring the size of an object to within very fine tolerances. A grinding machine has devices that hold an unfinished object and move it past the machine's abrasive wheel or belt, which is driven by a motor. For less exacting work, such as sharpening cutting tools, objects can be hand held and ground by a machine consisting mainly of an abrasive wheel or belt. For many products grinding is only one step in a finishing process that involves additional similar operations such as honing, lapping, polishing, and buffing.



(1) In metalworking, the machining of surfaces of workpieces with an abrasive tool. It is performed on grinding machines and other types of meal-cutting machine tools by means of special attachments (such as grinding heads), as well as by hand. A distinction is made between grinding in which the peripheral speed of the tool is approximately 20 m/sec and high-speed grinding, in which the peripheral speed is greater than 50 m/sec. Grinding makes it possible to fabricate metal parts having a precision of class 1 and a surface roughness of class 10. It is widely used to machine external and internal flat, cylindrical, conical, and irregularly shaped surfaces of workpieces made from metals, plastics, ceramics, ferrites, stone, and wood. Rough grinding is also used to some extent to remove large machining allowances from cast pig iron and steel workpieces.

The various types of grinding include external and internal cylindrical grinding, grinding with a planetary motion, external and internal centerless grinding, surface grinding, and grinding of special shapes.

Electrochemical grinding is used to work metals that are difficult to machine. Current-conducting grinding wheels are fed with a DC current, and an electrolyte is supplied to the cutting zone. Grinding can also be performed by means of vibration machining with an abrasive powder suspended in a liquid.

A carborundum abrasive tool is usually used to grind stone. The process may be accomplished by grinders or by hand.

(2) In groats production, grinding removes the germ and the outer parts of the kernel, thereby imparting a definite shape and uniformity to the crushed grains.


Maslov, E. N. Teoriia shlifovaniia materialov. Moscow, 1974.
Vul’f, A. M. Rezanie metallov, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1973.



A mechanical operation performed on silicon substrates of semiconductors to provide a smooth surface for epitaxial deposition or diffusion of impurities.
A mechanical operation performed on quartz crystals to alter their physical size and hence their resonant frequencies.
(mechanical engineering)
Reducing a material to relatively small particles.
Removing material from a workpiece with a grinding wheel.
(mining engineering)
The act or process of continuing to drill after the bit or core barrel is blocked, thereby crushing and destroying any core that might have been produced.


Repetitive actions in a video game to accumulate points in order to gain experience or advance to the next level. Games may be designed for players to grind their way through in order to feel that they accomplished something. In addition, novices are allowed to make progress in a game with a lot of grinding; otherwise they would be stumped. See farming.
References in periodicals archive ?
Herrman, the current President of Gardner Disc Grinding and Abrasives in South Beloit, has been named to head the Company's combined North American grinding operations and will be based in Waynesboro.
Because finishing costs are considerable, the metalcaster interested in getting the most out of his foundry must take a hard look at finishing room efficiency in general and, more specifically, total grinding costs.
and precision knife mills for fine grinding of films, and a densifying system (PFV) for converting thermoplastic such as film, foam and fiber, to free-flowing granules are also available.
The robot can then be programmed to bring the required variety of grinding wheels to the casting.
as well as precision knife mills for grinding film, are standard.
The process, referred to as "performance mapping", utilizes detailed grinding performance data and mathematical algorithms generated by a computer to very quickly and simply show the optimum operating parameters for any type of abrasive product.
Chipping and grinding in the cleaning room are processes that remove and smooth fins, gating/risering stubs, parting line flashing, scabs, welded areas and burned-in sand.
This design is said to achieve the highest overall slant angle in grinding.
The Global High Chrome Steel Grinding Media Balls Industry Report 2014 is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global high chrome steel grinding media balls industry.
The CC-GRIND SOLID discs are as sturdy and safe as any reinforced grinding wheel and with their special flange clamping set, they are also able to work at optimal position on all standard angle grinders.
There is a 30-kW spindle drive that provides up to 120,000 rpm for the 300mm OD grinding wheel.
Cryo-Grind cryogenic grinding and recycling system reduces hard-to-grind materials without contributing to heat history.