Possible involvement of 1-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate
(cGMP) signaling pathway in the antidepressant activity of berberine chloride.
Linaclotide-induced intestinal pain reduction is thought to result from an increase in cyclic guanosine monophosphate
(cGMP), which has been shown to decrease the activity of pain-sensing nerves.
Also, the substances nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate
(cGMP) are incorrectly described as having separate effects on smooth muscle cells (pages 26 and 104, table 11.
Phosphodiesterase-5 degrades cyclic guanosine monophosphate
, a compound that causes vascular smooth-muscle relaxation.
Intracellularly, MP is converted by hypoxanthine guanine phosphorybosyltransferase into thioinosine monophosphate (TIMP) and subsequently into thioguanosine monophosphate by a two-step process involving inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and guanosine monophosphate
Nitric oxide is a biogenic messenger, an EDRF (15,16), and it activates the guanylyl cyclase system (17) [it converts guanosine triphosphate to cyclic guanosine monophosphate
(cGMP)], raising the cGMP pool and therefore inducing, among other things, vasodilatation (17) by lowering the intracellular calcium ion (16).
Viadine is also designed to inhibit the production of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), which aids in the release of cyclic guanosine monophosphate
(cGMP) to relax the smooth muscles in the penis.
Reduction of NO levels within the brain can induce antidepressant-like effects and therefore, L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate
(cGMP) is an important signalling pathway that is reported to be involved in depression (Harkin et al.
Along with increasing blood flow in arteries, Viagra interferes with phosphodiesterases (PDEs), enzymes that break down the messenger molecule called cyclic guanosine monophosphate
(cGMP), which would otherwise "put the brakes on" heart muscle cell growth.
Malakoplakia is thought to result from a deficit in the ability of phagocytes to kill microorganisms,[27,29] possibly due to diminished release of [Beta]-glucuronidase and low levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate
Pharmacotherapy involves locally acting vasoactive drugs such as papaverin and alprostadil (Bostandjiev and Mitra, 2004), and first-line oral therapy for ED includes phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors such as sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil, which inhibit hydrolysis of the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate
(cGMP), whose production is promoted by nitric oxide (NO) release within the penile smooth cells (Montorsi et al.