Guaraní

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Guaraní

(gwäränē`), indigenous group living in the eastern lowland area of South America, related to the Tupí of the Rio São Francisco and the TupinambáTupinambá,
a people living in the eastern lowland area of South America, related to the Tupí of the Rio São Francisco and the Guaraní of Paraguay and adjacent portions of Brazil and Argentina.
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 on the Atlantic coast. The Guaraní language is currently spoken by some 6 million people in Paraguay (where it is widely spoken and an official language) and in adjacent portions of Argentina, Brazil, and Bolivia. At the time of the Spanish conquest (16th cent.), the Guaraní lived in settlements consisting of four to eight large communal dwellings, each of which accommodated 100 people or more. Chiefs resided patrilocally, but other men lived in their wives' houses and performed bride-service. They depended primarily on intensive agriculture supplemented by fishing, hunting, and gathering; the staple crops were corn and manioc. Men cleared fields that women tilled. Although their material culture was not advanced, Guaraní songs, dances, and myths constituted a rich body of folklore. Their religion was based on an impressive and elaborate mythology. The shaman was believed to possess supernatural powers that allowed him to ward off evil and cure sickness. The Guaraní survived initial contact with rapacious conquistadors because Paraguay lay apart from the main routes of Spanish trade and influence. Early Jesuit missionaries established the historically controversial system of reductionsreductions,
Span. reducciones, settlements of indigenous peoples in colonial Latin America, founded (beginning in 1609) to utilize efficiently native labor and to teach the natives the ways of Spanish life.
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, which (for a short time) protected them from the slave-trade, and hispanicized them. Surviving Guaraní continue to practice communal agriculture in some rural areas and Guaraní culture has had a strong influence on present-day Paraguayan musical folklore.

Guarani

 

a South American Indian language (spoken by the Caingua. Guayaqui, Apapocuva, Ivapare, Guayana, Chane, Chiriguano, and other tribes), which belongs to the Tupi-Guarani family of languages. Before the colonization of South America (16th century), it was spoken over the territory of what is now Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina. The Guarani language forms the basis of the so-called common language (lingua geral), that to this day serves as a means of intertribal communication among the Indians of South America. It has been subjected to the influence of the Spanish and Portuguese languages since the 16th century. In Paraguay missionaries continued to use Guarani and compiled several dictionaries and grammars based on the Roman alphabet, thus contributing to the survival of the language. In present-day Paraguay, Spanish js the official state language, although Guarani is spoken by approximately 80 percent of the population, and newspapers and books are published in the language.

REFERENCES

Cornelsen. E. Lingua Guarani. Rio de Janeiro. 1937.
Ayrosa. P. “Apontamentos para a bibliografia da lingua Tupi-Guarani.” Universidade de Säo Paulo, bulletin no. 4. 1943.
Jover Peralta, A., and T. Osuna. Diccionario guaraní-español. Buenos Aires [1951].
References in periodicals archive ?
Misiones has about one hundred Guarani communities of the Mbya and Ava Chiripa.
The fieldwork was carried out during an ethnobotanical program that took place between 2000 and 2008 in eleven Guarani villages in the Departments of Concepcion (1), Eldorado (1), Guarani (4), Lib.
The general term for ferns in Guarani is amambdi and this includes those species in the class Polypodiopsida.
The Guaranis were ultracommunists, and he liked that a great deal," Sigisfredo says.
The community's cacique, Julio Preida, says that Bertoni provided medical treatment and gave the Guaranis work in his yerba mate field.
Jesuit mission activity among the Guarani of Paraguay ranks as one of the most interesting affairs in the annals of colonial Latin America.
At the same time, the oppressive nature of Jesuit authority over the Guarani serves as a blunt reminder that the missions were part of the same Conquest mentality that employed the encomienda, repartimiento, and slavery as methods to organize labor in the New World.
Of those 41 languages, the two most frequently mentioned since the arrival of Europeans have been Guarani and Tupinamba.
A first stage of archaeological research compared pottery, attempting to verify the relationship of Tupinamba and Guarani pottery to that of Amazonia (Netto 1885; Torres 1911; 1934; Linne 1925; Costa 1934; Howard 1947; 1948; Willey 1949).
Rivers play a vital role in the nation's economy, and the name of the country is said to derive from the Guarani Indian word meaning "place with a great river.