|Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary|
5,190,595,439 visitors served.
guidance and counseling
|Also found in: Dictionary/thesaurus||0.01 sec.|
guidance and counseling, concept that institutions, especially schools, should promote the efficient and happy lives of individuals by helping them adjust to social realities. The disruption of community and family life by industrial civilization convinced many that guidance experts should be trained to handle problems of individual adjustment. Though the need for attention to the whole individual had been recognized by educators since the time of Socrates, it was only during the 20th cent. that researchers actually began to study and accumulate information about guidance.
This development, occurring largely in the United States, was the result of two influences: John Dewey Dewey, John, 1859–1952, American philosopher and educator, b. Burlington, Vt., grad. Univ. of Vermont, 1879, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins, 1884. He taught at the universities of Minnesota (1888–89), Michigan (1884–88, 1889–94), and Chicago
Early guidance programs dealt with the immediate problem of vocational placement. The complexities of the industrial economy and the unrealistic ambitions of many young people made it essential that machinery for bringing together jobs and workers be set up; vocational guidance became that machinery. At the same time, counseling organizations were established to help people understand their potentialities and liabilities and make intelligent personal and vocational decisions. The first vocational counseling service was the Boston Vocational Bureau, established (1908) by Frank Parsons, a pioneer in the field of guidance. His model was soon copied by many schools, municipalities, states, and private organizations.
With the development of aptitude and interest tests, such as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test and the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, commercial organizations were formed to analyze people's abilities and furnish career advice. Schools organized testing and placement services, many of them in cooperation with federal and state agencies. Under the provisions of the National Defense Education Act (1958), the federal government provided assistance for guidance and counseling programs in the public secondary schools and established a testing procedure to identify students with outstanding abilities. The U.S. Dept. of Labor has been an active force in establishing standards and methods of vocational guidance, helping states to form their own vocational guidance and counseling services. The personnel departments of many large corporations have also instituted systems of guidance to promote better utilization of their employees.
Modern high school guidance programs also include academic counseling for those students planning to attend college. In recent years, school guidance counselors have also been recognized as the primary source for psychological counseling for high school students; this sometimes includes counseling in such areas as drug abuse and teenage pregnancy and referrals to other professionals (e.g., psychologists, social workers, and learning-disability specialists). Virtually all teachers colleges offer major courses in guidance, and graduate schools of education grant advanced degrees in the field.
See E. Landy et al., Guidance in American Education (3 vol., 1966); B. E. Schertzer and S. C. Stone, Foundations of Counseling (1980); W. G. Herron, Contemporary School Psychology (1984).
Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, add the site to iGoogle, or visit the webmaster's page for free fun content.
|Mentioned in||?||References in periodicals archive||?||Encyclopedia browser||?||Full browser||?|
No references found
Gysbers (2006) summarized the influence of state-level leadership and policy in school counseling over the past 60 years and stated that "strong leadership at the state level is a key to developing effective and accountable comprehensive guidance and counseling programs at the local level" (p.
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] While counseling structures designed to help students gain career awareness are in place within the educational system, the field of school-based guidance and counseling is itself confronted with great challenges that make it more difficult to provide students with strong career guidance.
He earned a master's degree in public administration from Suffolk University in Boston, a master's degree in educational administration from State University of New York at Buffalo, and a master's degree in guidance and counseling from Tufts University in Medford.
guidance and counseling
GUID Partition Table
GUID Partition Table
Guida Alla Programmazione in Linux
Guida Universale Al Cornetto
Guidance & Control
Guidance & Control Computer
Guidance & Control Concept Demonstration/Demonstrator
Guidance & Control Unit
Guidance & Policy Memorandum
Guidance Acceptance Test Set
Guidance Accuracy Study for SPRINT
Guidance and Beam Direction Sequencer
Guidance and Control
Guidance and Control Assembly
Guidance and Control Coding Unit
Guidance And Control Information Analysis Center
Guidance and Control Module
Guidance and Control of Underwater Vehicles
guidance and counselingGuidance and Flight Control
Guidance and Navigation
Guidance and Navigation Avionics Control Unit
Guidance and Navigation Computer
Guidance Application Program
Guidance Automation Toolkit
Guidance Checkout Computer
Guidance Clinic of the Middle Keys
Guidance Control Computer
Guidance Control Group
Guidance Control Section
Guidance Control System
Guidance Counselor Application
Guidance Document on Achievement Determination
Guidance Electronics Assembly
Guidance Electronics Miniaturization and Structronics
Guidance Electronics Unit
Guidance Enhanced Missile
Guidance Evaluation Model
Free toolbar & extensions |
Word of the Day |
For webmasters: Free content | Linking | Lookup box | Double-click lookup