gum


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gum,

in anatomy: see teethteeth,
hard, calcified structures embedded in the bone of the jaws of vertebrates that perform the primary function of mastication. Humans and most other mammals have a temporary set of teeth, the deciduous, or milk, teeth; in humans, they usually erupt between the 6th and 24th
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.

gum,

term commonly applied to any of a wide variety of colloidal substances somewhat similar in appearance and general characteristics, exuded by or extracted from plants. In this classification, however, many substances that are not true gums are included, among them many resinsresin,
any of a class of amorphous solids or semisolids. Resins are found in nature and are chiefly of vegetable origin. They are typically light yellow to dark brown in color; tasteless; odorless or faintly aromatic; translucent or transparent; brittle, fracturing like glass;
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, so-called gum resins, and such substances as frankincense, myrrh, labdanum, copal, amber, chicle, and rubber (gum elastic, India rubber). True gums are complex organic substances mostly obtained from plants, some of which are soluble in water and others of which, although insoluble in water, swell up by absorbing large quantities of it. With water they form thick, gluey fluids. Their chemical nature is complex. In general, they contain in various proportions carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and such metals as calcium, magnesium, and potassium in the form of salts of various organic acids. Gum arabic, or gum acacia, is a typical, water-soluble gum obtained from various plants of the genus Acacia, chiefly those found in Africa. A complex polysaccharide containing metal salts, gum arabic varies in color from white to red and is used extensively in making inks, adhesives, and confections; in the textile industry for filling fabrics; and in medicine as an emollient. Gum senegal is very similar. Among the gum resins (mixtures of gums and resins) are ammoniacammoniac
or gum ammoniac
, yellowish substance with a sickening, bitter taste, obtained from the milky exudate of the injured stem of a plant (Dorema ammoniacum) found in Iran, India, and S Siberia. It is a gum resin, soluble in alcohol and ether.
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, asafetida, bdelliumbdellium
, aromatic gum resin obtained from trees of the genus Commiphora, or Balsamodendron, of the incense-tree family. It is similar to myrrh. Bdellium is used in medicines and perfumes.
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, gambogegamboge
[Fr.,=Cambodia], an intensely yellow pigment obtained from the sap of Garcinia morella, a tree of SE Asia and Sri Lanka.
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, and myrrh. See also tragacanthtragacanth
or gum tragacanth,
gummy exudation from the leguminous shrub Astragalus gummifer and related pulse family plants of SE Europe and W Asia. It is obtained through incisions in the stem of the plant. The gum is produced chiefly in Iran.
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.

Bibliography

See C. L. Mantell et al., The Technology of Natural Resins (1942); C. L. Mantell, The Water-Soluble Gums (1947, repr. 1965); R. L. Davidson, Handbook of Water-Soluble Gums and Resins (1980).

gum

A moderately high-density hardwood, whitish to gray-green in color and of uniform texture; used for low-grade veneer, plywood, and rough cabinet work. See also: Douglas fir

gum

[gəm]
(materials)
A hydrophilic plant polysaccharide or derivative that swells to produce a viscous dispersion or solution when added to water. Also known as hydrocolloid.
(petroleum engineering)
Any one of the partially oxidized high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons that can form in gasoline stored without the addition of an oxidation inhibitor.

gum

1. A moderately high-density hardwood of the eastern and southern US; whitish to gray-green in color and of uniform texture; used for low-grade veneer, plywood, and rough cabinet work.
2. Any of a class of colloidal substances that are soluble or swell in water, exuded by or prepared from plants; sticky when moist.

gum

1
any sticky substance used as an adhesive; mucilage; glue

gum

1
1. any of various sticky substances that exude from certain plants, hardening on exposure to air and dissolving or forming viscous masses in water
2. any of various products, such as adhesives, that are made from such exudates
3. NZ short for kauri gum

gum

2
the fleshy tissue that covers the jawbones around the bases of the teeth
References in periodicals archive ?
They contain Acacia Gum, which alone (and without any chemical modification) gathers many functional properties: emulsifier, texturing and film forming agent, dietary fiber, stabilizer, carrier.
After wrapping the gum strips in tissue paper, they sold batches of 20 sticks packaged in small wooden boxes.
Witness the Beldent chewing gum experiment now airing on YouTube, where 70 percent of people gave the thumbs up to a non-gum chewer over his/her gum chewing twin.
For consumers, the site offers a quick gum health check (“Are you among the 75% or the 25%?
Littering with gum is quite furtive and it's very easy to dispose of chewing gum without being spotted.
He did not say how much Sudan now earned from gum arabic.
Dental hygienists also promote the use of chewing gum after meals to help reduce the risk of tooth decay.
During the campaign, problem sites will be cleaned and monitored, there will be high-profile advertising, and gum wraps will be distributed so people can get rid of their gum.
People have been chewing gum for thousands of years.
The bins are being fixed onto properties and the council is also seeking permission to put some up next to known chewing gum blackspots, such as pubs and takeaway shops where crowds gather.
Starch-xanthan gum dispersions were heated at 80 C for 10 minutes.