Gummosis


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gummosis

[‚gə′mō·səs]
(plant pathology)
Production of gummy exudates in diseased plants as a result of cell degeneration.

Gummosis

 

a disease predominantly of arboreal plants (such as stone-fruit crops, citrus, and mulberry) and more rarely herbaceous plants (such as cotton and sesame). The disease is characterized by the exudation of gum, a viscous, sticky amber-yellow or brown liquid that forms in the cells of the bark and lignin as a result of the dissolving of the cell membranes.

Gummosis is caused by poor cultivation conditions, injuries, frost crack, and damage by insects and microorganisms. The most harm is caused by cotton gummosis, which is encountered in all cotton-growing regions. This disease infests the aboveground organs and is accompanied by the appearance of grayish oily spots covered by gum. It is caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas malvacearum. The sources of infection include contaminated seeds and plant remains. Heavily infested shoots die, the leaves and fruiting elements turn yellow, dry out, and drop off, the stems become thin and crack, and the bolls rot.

The measures for combating cotton gummosis include the preparation of healthy seed stock, destruction of the post-harvest residues, late autumn plowing, and the disinfection of seeds. The measures for combating gummosis in stone-fruit trees are chiefly preventive and include correct farming practices, protection against sunscald and frost cracks, and correct pruning of the trees. For citrus, the measures include good soil drainage, spraying with Bordeaux mixture, and treatment of wounds.

REFERENCES

Babaian, A. A. Gommoz khlopchatnika. Yerevan, 1963.
Slovar’-spravochnikfitopatologa, 2nd ed. Edited by P. N. Golovin. Leningrad, 1967.

A. A. BABAIAN

References in periodicals archive ?
22] that the species is one of the most destructive citrus gummosis pathogen and predominates in very important regions of citrus production.
The test isolates induced characteristic brown rot and gummosis symptoms on lemon fruits and seedlings, thereby confirming P.
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Now that they've learned more about peach tree gummosis, Pusey says growers can limit fungicide sprays to the peak infection period in June and July.
It is the causal agent of gummosis of branches and trunks of citrus (Fawcett, 1936; Cedeno and Pru, 1992), mango (Narasimhudu and Reddy, 1992; Khanzada et al.
Relationship between incidence and severity of cashew gummosis in semiarid north-eastern Brazil.
The severity of decline foliage symptoms was sorted on a 1 to 5 scale, where 1 is healthy trees, free of disease; 2 is trees with marginal leaf necrosis; 3 is trees with bare dead terminal twigs retained for a long time; 4 is trees with bare decayed terminal twigs and bark gummosis; and 5 is trees entirely dead also exhibiting bark gummosis.
Mango decline syndrome displays diverse symptoms including dieback of terminal shoots with or without accompanying defoliation, gummosis on branches, and scaffold limbs, vascular discoloration, marginal chlorosis and necrosis of leaves, foliar deficiencies and root degeneration (Ploetz et al.
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After selection of nucellar and zygotic individuals the hybrids have been used in mapping analysis for diseases inheritance, specially CVC, tristeza, gummosis and leprosis.
Despite heavy reliance on citrus in Oman, especially acid lime, citrus species suffer from a number of disease problems, which include witches' broom disease of lime, Citrus tristeza virus, citrus gummosis and citrus viroids (Moghal et al.
Six to twelve-month old acid lime and sweet lime seedlings, which develop no apparent symptoms of gummosis, dieback or weak growth were used for inoculation.