hacienda

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hacienda

in Spain or Spanish-speaking countries
the main house on such a ranch or plantation

Hacienda

A large estate or ranch in areas once under Spanish influence; now the main house on such an estate.

hacienda

a large landed estate in Latin America worked by various forms of unfree labour, generally with mixed farming production for subsistence, a local or regional market, and for the consumption of the owner, the hacendado. This was one of the main ways in which agricultural production was organized in colonial Latin America until the 19th century, and in some cases into the 20th. For example, from the early 17th century in New Spain, now Mexico, the hacienda was ‘a permanently inhabited territorial area, with both fallow and cultivated lands, granaries in which the products of the harvest were kept, houses for the owners and their managers, shacks for the workers, small craft workshops, and toolsheds’ (Florescano, 1987). There livestock was raised and crops grown for mines and provincial towns. A variety of means of ensuring a labour supply were used, one of the most common being DEBT PEONAGE. Important for the organization and economic decisions within the hacienda were the political and status aspirations and consumption requirements of the hacendado. Haciendas were distinguished from PLANTATIONS in as much as the latter produced one crop, generally for export and often with corporate, rather than personal, forms of ownership.

FRANK (1969) has argued that haciendas were capitalist because they produced for the market. However, the absence of free wage labour and the low levels of capital accumulation have led most observers to argue against this. Production for the market is not a sufficient criterion for being called capitalist. Some observers use the term ‘semi-feudal’ as a general description. The hacienda began to change in the 19th-century, after independence, through political interventions to establish free labour and with growing capitalist developments in agriculture. Duncan and Rutledge (1977) provide one useful summary of the variety of changes which took place: some haciendas were broken up by land reform, others became capitalist estates or plantations, but in some areas the hacienda persisted up until the mid-20th century.

Hacienda

 

a large estate in a number of Latin American countries (called estancia in Argentina, Chile, and several other countries). Haciendas arose with the seizure of the lands of the native population by Spanish colonizers. By the late 16th and early 17th centuries, haciendas had in reality turned into hereditary estates of a feudal type to which the Indians were bound. Although nominally considered personally free, the Indians were obliged to work for the landowners and, in effect, were wholly dependent upon them. Even at the present time the hacienda is the predominant type of large-scale ownership of land in most Latin American countries.

REFERENCE

Al’perovich, M. S. “O kharaktere i formakh ekspluatatsii indeitsev v amerikanskikh koloniiakh Ispanii (XVI-XVIII veka).” Novaia i noveishaia istoriia, 1957, no. 2.

hacienda

1. A large estate in North and South American areas once under Spanish influence.
2. The main house on such an estate or ranch.
References in periodicals archive ?
De ahi que Briones sostiene un sentido de justicia por el cual lucha: "[Naun] dice que no es justo ver podrir el grano de los hacendados en los trojes mientras a nosotros el hambre nos enferma, que los perros de don Julio Eguiguren coman carne cuando nosotros nos hemos olvidado de su sabor" (10).
Within the next two decades, as President Lazaro Cardenas enforced on Yucatan the land and labor reforms of the Mexican Revolution, hacendados initially resisted, then gradually reconciled themselves to change.
It was considered an honor for an hacendado to accept a public appointment, and indeed ranchers began to make their weight felt politically.
A limited local financial system sometimes led peasants to seek work on haciendas, but virtually unlimited access to land made it impossible for the hacendados to impose onerous conditions.
Winds of Change: Hurricanes and the Transfromation of Nineteenth-Century Cuba (Chapel Hill, 2001) 37-56; and Pablo Tornero Tinajero, Crecimiento econemico y transformaciones sociales: Esclavos, hacendados y comerciantes en la Cuba colonial (1760-1840) (Madrid, 1996) chapters 2 and 3.
In a poll conducted by Gallup Dominicana for the Asociacion Dominicana de Hacendados y Agricultores (ADHA), 60.
When Indians of the area, predominantly pastoralists, rebelled against authoritarian hacendados and local authorities, mining activity was curbed for decades.
Lo mismo, y con identica sana y abundancia, habia hecho Juan Goytisolo con los hacendados cubanos de Juan sin Tierra (44-7), aunque aqui todavia se acometeria una venganza mayor.
en toda sociedad dividida en clases coexisten dos culturas, la de los opresores y la de los oprimidos, y si lo que se conoce coma "cultura nacional" es generalmente la cultura de los opresores, entonces es forzoso reconocer que lo que en Puerto Rico siempre hemos entendido por "cultura nacional" es la cultura producida por la clase de los hacendados y los profesionales .
Though at first Don Diego is a defender of the land-owning hacendados, he later comes to champion the causes of the underprivileged peasants through his alter ego, Zorro (Spanish for fox).
Vertical' organization or estate production (which may not be efficient under 20th-century conditions) minimized risk and maximized profits for colonial hacendados, and the products could also be sold.
However, only the younger hacendados (plantation owners) support annexation to the United States, while the established patriarchs resist changes to the status quo.