hadith


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hadith

(hädēth`), a tradition or the collection of the traditions of MuhammadMuhammad
[Arab.,=praised], 570?–632, the name of the Prophet of Islam, one of the great figures of history, b. Mecca. Early Life

Muhammad was the son of Abdallah ibn Abd al-Muttalib and his wife Amina, both of the Hashim clan of the dominant Kuraish (Quraysh)
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, the Prophet of Islam, including his sayings and deeds, and his tacit approval of what was said or done in his presence. The term, which literally refers to an individual tradition, is also used as a synonym of sunna, the normative custom of the Prophet and his companions, and as the name of a scholarly discipline. Hadith, as a discipline, consists of two branches, the first concerned with the validation of the individual traditions through the process of biographic examination of its chain of transmitters back to the Prophet (isnad), and the second concentrating on the actual content of the validated traditions (matn) as a source of religious authority. Since the formalization of Islam, this source of authority has been viewed as second only to the Qur'an. Hadith currently exists in two main sets of collections, corresponding to the Sunni and Shiite division within Islam. Sunni Islam recognizes as authoritative the collections of Bukhari and Muslim followed in importance by those of Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, an-Nasai, and Ibn Maja. Shiite Islam accepts only traditions traced through Ali's family. The major Shiite collections are those of al-Kulini, al-Babuya al-Qummi, and al-Tusi.

Bibliography

See W. A. Graham, Divine Word and Prophetic Word in Early Islam (1977); G. H. A. Juynboll, Muslim Tradition (1981).

Hadith

 

(Arabic), the recorded traditions based on incidents from the life of, or pronouncements by, Muhammad and his companions. Studies by I. Goldziher and C. Snouck Hurgronje have shown that the greater part of the Hadith date from the late seventh and early eighth centuries, when it became apparent that the precepts of the Koran could not resolve all the legal and ethical problems of Muslim society. In the ninth to tenth centuries, tens of thousands of Hadith were grouped according to subject and given permanent form in six manuscript collections. This body of work came to be known as the sunna and became one of the sources of Muslim law.

Each Hadith consists of the basic text, or matn, conveying its factual content, and the list of supporting authorities, or isnad —that is, the chain of individuals through whom the text was transmitted to the compiler. Of the six canonical collections of Hadith, two were regarded as the most authoritative and were called “the authentic ones” (as-Sahihani, literally Health)— namely, those compiled by al-Bukhari (810–70) and by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj (or al-Nishapuri, 817–74). The Hadith were a significant influence in the development of Arabic literature.

REFERENCES

Krymskii. A. E. Istoriia musul’manstva, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1904. Part 1.
Shmidt, A. E. “Ocherki istorii islama kak religii.” In the collection Mirislama, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 32–55; no. 2, pp. 185–202; no. 4, pp. 562–81. St. Petersburg, 1912.

V. M. BORISOV

References in periodicals archive ?
ISLAMABAD -- The Saudi Arabia Minister of Culture and Information, Awwad Bin Saleh al-Awwad has described the establishment of a complex on the Prophet's Hadiths by King Salman as an unprecedented accomplishment for the service of the Sunnah, which is the second source of Islamic legislation.
Such is the divisive nature of these interpretations of the Hadith that it has given rise to legions of extreme thinking in militants who have used these distorted fatwa s and interpretations of the Hadith that has finally compelled Saudi Arabia to counter this rising menace.
ses in which significant dissent among jurists exists, both in Medina and elsewhere, and on topics for which few if any "solitary" (ahadi) prophetic hadiths were in circulation.
The idea behind the cartoons is to present the Hadith in a modern and accessible way.
In a Hadith regarding the basic rights of a worker while clarifying needs of such a person, the Messenger (SAW) said:
A similar warning is made by Prophet Muhammad to those who might dare change the meaning of his statements or narrate a hadith knowing it to be false.
4) Again, in "Esrarname," Doy-an interprets a hadith included on page 16 as: "A flag will arise from Masrikt, and the person hoisting this flag will be Suayb Bun Salih from the Temim tribe.
Their lawyer told AFP that investigators told the court that five of the defendants were arrested at a market last month for talking about their belief that the Quran is the only source for religion and that they don't recognize the Hadith.
3), which lumps together the three monotheistic religions and which is all the more surprising given that the very foundation of Belief (Iman) in Islam mentions angels as the second of the six required components of Belief in the Hadith of Jibrll, which the author cites later on and a Qur'anic verse states: The Messenger believes in what has been sent down to him from His Lord, and so do the believers.
According to Mohammad Bin Yahya Al-Junaid, a Hashemite Zaydi religious scholar from the city of Taiz, this hadith is an example of "a direct ruling," which shows that the criteria for choosing a husband should be based on the content of his character and the extent of his piousness.
It is also forbidden to cite a portion of a verse from the Qur'an or part of a verse to derive a ruling without looking at everything that the Qur'an and hadith teach related to that matter.
Boubakar Doukouri, Conseiller du president de la republique pour les affaires islamiques du Burkina Faso, sous le theme: "L'importance du Hadith Acharif dans la connaissance des preceptes et de la morale", s'inspirant du verset du Saint Coran "Prenez ce que le Messager vous donne; et ce qu'il vous interdit, abstenez-vous en".