hemorrhagic fever

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Related to haemorrhagic fever: Korean hemorrhagic fever, Dengue hemorrhagic fever, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever

hemorrhagic fever

(hĕm'ərăj`ĭk), any of a group of viral diseases characterized by sudden onset, muscle and joint pain, fever, bleeding, and shock from loss of blood. Bleeding occurs in the form of leakage from capillaries in the internal organs and the skin and mucous membranes. The causative viruses may be transmitted to humans by insects, ticks, or rodents, but in the case of the African hemorrhagic fevers, Ebola and Marburg, the animal carrier is unknown. In addition to Ebola and Marburg, well-known hemorrhagic fevers include hantavirushantavirus,
any of a genus (Hantavirus) of single-stranded RNA viruses that are carried by rodents and transmitted to humans when they inhale vapors from contaminated rodent urine, saliva, or feces. There are many strains of hantavirus.
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, Lassa feverLassa fever
, an acute viral disease occurring mostly in W Africa, characterized by high fever, muscle aches, mouth ulcers, and bleeding in the skin in more severe cases. The disease was first recognized in Lassa, Nigeria, in 1969.
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, yellow feveryellow fever,
acute infectious disease endemic in tropical Africa and many areas of South and Central America. Yellow fever is caused by a virus transmitted by the bite of the female Aedes aegypti mosquito, which breeds in stagnant water near human habitations.
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, and a severe form of dengue called dengue hemorrhagic fever (see dengue feverdengue fever
, acute infectious disease caused by four closely related viruses and transmitted by the bite of the female Aedes mosquito; it is also known as breakbone fever and bone-crusher disease.
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; see also Ebola virusEbola virus
, a member of a family (Filovidae) of RNA viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. The virus, named for the region in Congo (Kinshasa) where it was first identified in 1976, emerged from the rain forest, where it survives in as yet unconfirmed hosts, possibly
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).

Ebola and Marburg are closely related, newly emergent viruses that have in recent years caused epidemics in central Africa, with very high rates of mortality. Hantavirus occurs in many different parts of the world and is spread to humans from field rodents via microscopic bits of their excretions that get into the air and are inhaled. It was originally known as a disease of Asia and Europe that primarily attacked the kidneys, but a more deadly pulmonary form of hantavirus infection has more recently caused numerous fatalities in the United States, Chile, and other countries. Lassa fever, also spread to humans from rodent excretions, occurs primarily in W Africa. Closely related to the Lassa virus are the Junin and Machupo viruses, which have caused outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in South America. Yellow fever, transmitted by the bite of a mosquito, still occurs in tropical areas despite largely successful control efforts. Dengue hemorrhagic fever, also spread by mosquitoes, has in recent years caused many fatalities among children in tropical countries.

There is usually no specific treatment to combat the viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. One exception is the drug ribavirin, which has been effective in treating Lassa fever and has also been used to treat a form of hantavirus infection and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Treatment generally consists of such supportive measures as the replacement of lost blood, the maintainence of fluid balance, and the alleviation of symptoms. Survival depends largely upon the virulence of the virus strain and the quality of treatment. An experimental vaccine for Ebola was developed and used in a limited manner against the strain that caused the 2013–15 West African outbreak, but its long-term effectiveness is unclear.

Bibliography

See R. Reston, The Hot Zone (1994).

References in periodicals archive ?
The CCHF is the most widespread tick-borne viral infection and one of the rapidly emerging viral haemorrhagic fevers in humans, occurring across many countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region," Dr.
On Wednesday, health minister Bahar Idriss Abu Garada renewed the denial of haemorrhagic fever but admitted the spread of dengue fever in the region.
The first importation of haemorrhagic fever to SA was in 1975.
This is a significant breakthrough and demonstrates the potential to develop a publically available vaccine against Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.
Epidemiology of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus: Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Islamic Republic of Iran, Kosovo, Russian Federation, Turkey.
According to the World Health Organisation, CCHF is a viral haemorrhagic fever that is primarily a zoonosis -- defined as any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans and vice-versa.
Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever is a tick–borne viral disease.
Clinical features of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the United Arab Emirates.
Shift from a Th1-type response to Th2-type in dengue haemorrhagic fever.
West Nile virus is a type of haemorrhagic fever transmitted by infected mosquitoes.
Two cases of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in two tourists in Senegal in 2004.
3 - Delivery of specific human immunoglobulin for Crimean haemorrhagic fever with international non Immunoglobuline Human Anti-Crimean Haemorrhagic Fever;Lot ?