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(dŭl`sĭmər), stringed musical instrument. It is a wooden box with strings stretched over it that are struck with small mallets. The number of strings may vary. The dulcimer is related to the psalterypsaltery
, stringed musical instrument. It has a flat soundboard over which a variable number of strings are stretched. Its origin was in the Middle East, and it is referred to in the Bible. It appeared in Europe in the 12th cent. and flourished until the late Middle Ages.
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 and modern zitherzither
, stringed musical instrument, derived from the psaltery and the dulcimer. It has a flat sound box over which are stretched from 30 to 45 strings; these are plucked with the fingers and a plectrum. In the 18th cent.
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. It originated in the Middle East and was adopted in Europe in the Middle Ages. It is known, in varying forms, in Turkey, Iran, China (including Tibet), and other parts of Asia, the Middle East, and N Africa. The popularity of the dulcimer continued in Western Europe until the 17th cent., when it sharply declined, though a German, Pantaleon Hebenstreit, enlarged it to make an instrument called the pantaleon in the early 18th cent. It is still much used in Eastern Europe in Romani (Gypsy) bands. In Appalachia a plucked dulcimer very similar to the zither is popular. It has an elongated hourglass shape and is held on the player's lap.



a hammered stringed instrument. The dulcimer consists of a flat wooden body in the shape of a trapezoid, with strings stretched over the upper soundboard. The sound is produced by striking two wooden sticks or hammers against two to five metal strings. The instrument’s range extends from E in the bass clef to E in the third octave.

An ancient instrument, the dulcimer is depicted on ancient Assyrian monuments. It has been known in Western Europe since the 18th century; it achieved its greatest popularity in Hungary and Slovakia. The Moldavian (ţambal, the Armenian and Georgian santir and tsintsila, and the Uzbek chang are all related to the dulcimer. The chromatic dulcimers developed in the late 19th century by the Hungarian master craftsman V. Schunda formed an instrument family by adding an alto, bass, and contrabass dulcimer to the original dulcimer; such dulcimers are used in folk orchestras. In 17th-century Russia the harpsichord was called a dulcimer.

I. F. Stravinsky included a dulcimer part in The Fox and Ragtime for 11 instruments.


Modr. A. Muzykul’nye instrumenty. Moscow, 1959. Pages 80–82.


1. a tuned percussion instrument consisting of a set of strings of graduated length stretched over a sounding board and struck with a pair of hammers
2. an instrument used in US folk music, consisting of an elliptical body, a fretted fingerboard, and usually three strings plucked with a goose quill
References in periodicals archive ?
Chrisman brings a whole new approach to playing the hammered dulcimer, redefining and expanding the range and technique of the instrument.
As hammered dulcimer historian Paul Gifford notes, performers of the yangqin make up what is certainly the world's most vibrant hammered dulcimer scene.
Other highlights include Celtic Storytelling, the Dulcimer Orchestra with Bonnie Carol, Celtic harp with Star Edwards, hammered dulcimer with Tina Gugeler, Scottish country dancers, Irish step dancers, Ceilidh dancers with Molly Bennett, a Dulcimer Contest held on Sunday morning, and the first time appearance of Welsh folk dancers, Dawnswyr y Ddraig (The Dancers of the Dragon).
Near Asheville, NC Mountain Music Workshops: Chimney Rock Park offers two workshops: learn to play the mountain dulcimer or the hammered dulcimer or both.
WOODLAND HILLS - Gerry Feher of Mammoth Lakes knew he wanted to earn his living as a musician, so he went to a local street corner with a hammered dulcimer and tapes of his Celtic music in hand.
Formed in 2009, the group features Aleta McGee on guitar and vocals; Carla Rutter on flute and pennywhistle; Al Foster on mandolins, concertina and banjo; Bill Ilari on bass; and Joe Ross on mandolin, concertina, hammered dulcimer and vocals.
Not that he's a traditionalist in the sense of revisiting or revising the old ballads for contemporary audiences, rather in that he relies on the simple warmth of his voice, his acoustic guitar and the gently rustic arrangements of hammered dulcimer, euphonium, banjo, and bouzouki to stir up the emotions within his organic songs of love bent, bruised, battered and beatific.
Near Asheville, NC Hammered Dulcimer Music: John Mason, Chimney Rock Park's featured performer, plays beautiful hammered dulcimer music for Park guests, 10am-4pm.
VAS is composed of Californian Greg Ellis, who plays Middle Eastern percussion, and Iranian-born Azam Ali, who plays the hammered dulcimer and sings.
The "Gitchi-gama Strings," a group of 11 musicians who play hammered dulcimer, guitars, mandolin, autoharp, flute, recorder and percussion instruments, will perform free concerts Friday, Saturday and Sunday at 7 p.
According to their bio, Lynx & Janover create a "diversified, harmonic blend of all-original hip-hop and down-tempo electronica grooves with stellar song writing, guitar playing, beat boxing, rhyming, amplified mini-kit percussion and the unique sounds of the hammered dulcimer.
Nine musicians will play instruments such as the Celtic harp, hammered dulcimer and the bowed psaltery.