Sphingidae

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Sphingidae

[′sfin·jə‚dē]
(invertebrate zoology)
The single family of the lepidopteran superfamily Sphingoidea.

Sphingidae

 

a family of hawk moths. They are of average and large size; the wingspan is 2 to 18 cm. They are characterized by a cigar-shaped body, narrow elongated forewings, and spindle-shaped antennae. The insects can fly with a velocity of up to 54 km/hr and “stand” in the air, sucking nectar from flowers with their long tongue while in flight. (The length of the tongue in the Madagascar hawk moth, Macrosila predicta, exceeds 25 cm.) Sphingidae caterpillars are always naked. They feed on leaves, stripping the shoots bare. There are about 1,200 species, which are found throughout the world. Most are found in the tropics; in the European part of the USSR there are 26 species, and about 40 are found in the Far East. Some members of the family Sphingidae are capable of long flights. (Daphnis nerii flies from the shores of the Black Sea to Finland.) The pupae winter in the soil. Some species are harmful to one or several closely related plants, most frequently woody plants. The pine hawk moth (Sphinx pinastri) and the eyed hawk moth (Smerinthus ocellatus) are among the harmful species in the USSR. The convolvulus hawk moth (Herse convolvuli) is useful in destroying bindweed in the southern Ukraine.

REFERENCES

Kuznetsov, N. Ia. “Obzor semeistva Sphingidae palearkticheskoi i otchasti paleanarkticheskoi (kitaisko-gimalaiskoi) fauny.” Tr. Russkogo entomologicheskogo obshchestva, 1906, vol. 37, nos. 3–4.
Zhizn’ zhivotnykh. Edited by L. A. Zenkevich, vol. 3. Moscow, 1969.
Seitz, A. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde, section 1, vol. 2. Stuttgart, 1913.

V. I. KUZNETSOV

References in periodicals archive ?
2007) 'The Hawklet or Savannah Hawkmoth, Sphingonaepiopsis nana (Walker, 1856), new to the United Arab Emirates (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae)'.
In addition to the loss of habitat, several factors are contributing to the species' low population numbers, according to Wagner, including the decline of another species, the nocturnal hawkmoths, the orchid's only pollinator.
Then there is the Brazilian hawkmoth caterpillar (Leucorhampa ornatus).
Like an unnoticed memento mori, the leaves above the epithalamic pool "Hang as still as hawk or hawkmoth," the first recognizable as Hopkins' elegant-yet-deadly "Windhover" suspended above its prey; the second, a more common harbinger of death--both motionless, both waiting.
The most common hawkmoth encountered during the study was Ceratomia hageni.
In Chapter 3, I encountered a characteristic blizzard of butterfly names and was completely flummoxed until Nabokov sent a list of equivalents: Malayan hawkmoth, swallowtail, painted lady, Amandus blue, Freya fritillary, and so on (a list that was just as beautiful in English as in the original Russian).
The scientists tethered a hawkmoth to the end of a wind tunnel, then blasted it with smoke.
About 40 years later a local race of the hawkmoth Xanthopan morganii was discovered that had a proboscis this long.
The pollinators are hawkmoth (Sphingidae), which also visit the nectarless female flowers.