hegemony

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hegemony

(hĭjĕm`ənē, hē–, hĕj`əmō'nē, hĕg`ə–), [Gr.,=leadership], dominance, originally of one Greek city-state over others, the term has been extended to refer to the dominance of one nation over others, and, following GramsciGramsci, Antonio
, 1891–1937, Italian political leader and theoretician. Originally a member of the Socialist party and a cofounder (1919) of the left-wing paper L'Ordine Nuovo, Gramsci helped to establish (1921) the Italian Communist party.
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, of one class over others. Conflict over hegemony fills history from the war between Athens and Sparta to the Napoleonic wars, World Wars I and II, and the Cold War. Gramsci's use of the concept extends it beyond international relations to class structure and even to culture.

Bibliography

See K. J. Holsti, The Dividing Discipline (1985).

hegemony

  1. the power exercised by one social group over another.
  2. the ideological/cultural domination of one class by another, achieved by ‘engineering consensus’ through controlling the content of cultural forms and major institutions.
In sense 2 , the term is derived from the work of GRAMSCI (1971), an Italian Marxist jailed by the fascists in the 1920s. He used the term to criticize the narrowness of approaches which focused only on the repressive potential of the capitalist state. Gramsci argued that the domination of ideas in the major institutions of capitalist society, including the Roman Catholic Church, the legal system, the education system, the mass communications media, etc, promoted the acceptance of ideas and beliefs which benefited the RULING CLASS. Gramsci compared civil society to a powerful system of ‘fortresses and earthworks’ standing behind the state. As a result, the problem of cultural hegemony was crucial to understanding the survival of capitalism. Gramsci concluded that before winning power the working class would have to undermine the hegemony of the ruling class by developing its own alternative hegemony. As well as exercising leadership, this required a cultural and ideological struggle in order to create a new socialist ‘common sense’, and thus change the way people think and behave. It followed, therefore, that a subordinate and oppressed class, in addition to organizing to resist physical coercion and repression, had to develop a systematic refutation of ruling ideas. In this sense, of political and theoretical struggle, the idea of hegemony, and often the term itself, was already established and in common use, for example in the Russian Marxist movements (see Anderson, 1977).

Where Gramsci most influenced later work was in shifting the emphasis from ‘counter-hegemony’ as a political necessity for subordinated groups, to hegemony as a factor in stabilizing an existing power structure. In a general sense, there is nothing new in this for sociologists. Weber, for example, writing more than a decade before Gramsci, had emphasized that the crude exercise of force was too unstable a method of guaranteeing the continuance of a system. A stable power system also needed a socially accepted principle of legitimation (see LEGITIMATE AUTHORITY). What distinguished Gramsci's contribution, and has influenced sociology in the last two decades, is the encouragement to investigate the ways in which specific institutions operated in the social reproduction of power relations and to examine wider theoretical issues in understanding belief structures, IDEOLOGY, etc. In the UK, the work of the Birmingham University Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) (see CULTURAL STUDIES) was one important influence in the analysis and use of the concept. In recent years, there have been many studies which have used it in relation to issues such as working-class youth subcultures, the production of television news, and the development of state education.

hegemony

ascendancy or domination of one power or state within a league, confederation, etc., or of one social class over others
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emulated British hegemonism, facilitating the development of colonial capitalism mainly in Oromia.
The pressure the Chinese brought to bear on the North Koreans has been subtle, and has often been wrapped in plausible deniability--Beijing prefers persuasion to coercive diplomacy, and with its frequent claims to eschew hegemonism it cannot be seen bullying a smaller neighbor.
47] The Hong Kong and Macau Business Association held a similar session in which it condemned "any outside country that speaks without authority out of both sides of its mouth while moving closer to wild hegemonism.
No less exemplary from an official Brunei standpoint would also have been the balance of the contributions, with Brunei's leading historian, Director of Brunei History Centre, Pehin Jamil, given pride of place; (22) or, for that matter, Ms Davies's avoidance, in her own paper, not only of any reference to Brunei but, importantly, to its non-Muslim ethnic minorities as the last surviving vestiges of pre-Muslim states of north Borneo, with an imaginable, revivalist potential to resist the Brunei Malay ethnic hegemonism that is a prominent concomitant-cum-beneficiary of Malay absolute monarchy today.
Abdullah found that Malay nationalist support was slipping away because he was seen as too soft on non-Muslim religious demands, whereas from the point of view of campaigners for religious freedom he looked like the prisoner of Muslim hegemonism.
In the past, China has criticized the hegemonism of Washington and Moscow, and it continues to express opposition to expansionism by any power.
And the expansion of Western economies is making the West more and more dependent on foreign resources and markets and resort to hegemonism and conflicts.
State minister Koji Omi said Tuesday that Chinese President Jiang Zemin's remark that he ''absolutely cannot tolerate'' Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi's April 21 visit to Yasukuni Shrine smacked of hegemonism.
37), barzelletta (joke; 57), matrimoniale bedspread (double bedspread; 72), bandiera rosa (red flag [the second word is misspelled as rosa instead of rossa, which results in an involuntary but politically substantial error, in that rosa means "pink"]; 89), commizzi (political meetings or rallies [should be spelled comizi]; 89), socialimperialismo, egemonismo (social imperialism, hegemonism [words that belong to the current jargon of the Marxist-Leninist Left]; 89), titolari (in this context, political officials or dignitaries; 96), compagni (comrades [referring to members of the Italian Communist Party]; 211), l'ideologo (the ideologue; 218), appunto
Externally, democratization is incompatible with hegemonism, whether economic, political, or strategic.
As indicated in the article, while some students criticised the Chinese government's weak stance towards US hegemonism in the Sino-U.