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see SpartaSparta
, city of ancient Greece, capital of Laconia, on the Eurotas (Evrótas) River in the Peloponnesus. Spartan Society

Sparta's government was headed by two hereditary kings furnished by two families; they were titular leaders in battle and in religion.
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, Greece.



the farm population of ancient Sparta, conquered by the Dorians.

Like the Thessalian penestai and the Cretan klarotai, the Helots were considered to be the property of the state, and they were bound to the cleruchial land sections owned by individual Spartans, who were members of the Spartan community. The Helots differed from slaves in that they owned the means of production needed to work the land and had their own farms. The owners of the land sections could neither sell nor kill Helots. The payment in kind (apophora) established by the state, which the Helots paid to their masters, amounted to approximately half of the crop; the remaining portion belonged to the Helots. The Helots greatly outnumbered their Spartan conquerors. They were not included in the Spartan community and did not enjoy any rights whatsoever. Unbridled exploitation and constant terror by the Spartans caused uprisings among the Helots, the most important of which was the so-called Second Messenian War (during the seventh century B.C.). In order to prevent Helot uprisings, the Spartans introduced the system of Kryptiai, who led periodic punitive expeditions against the Helots.


Lotze, D. “MetaxÝ eleuthérōvkái dúlōn.” Studien für Rechlsslellung unfreier Landbevölkerungen bis zum 4 Jh. v. Chr. Berlin, 1949.


References in periodicals archive ?
Further and even more importantly, Thucydides writes that the Spartans were happy to have an excuse to send out helots from the Peloponnese, since the occupation of Pylos was thought to have increased the chances of a helot revolt.
On the Helot side, Terpander, Three's slippery answer to Dilios, introduces himself as a storyteller by claiming 'I know stories.
5) and their helot attendants could have prevented a landing of Athenians in force on an island as large as Sphakteria.
Keeper David Bert helot replaced Ramiro Gonzalez with Joaquin Bornes, Juan Nieto and giant striker Sebastian Ferrero also landing starting places.
By the end of the eighth century, the Spartans had spread the helot system from Laconia into the Messenian plain through a series of long wars that enabled them to destroy whatever state existed there.
There were no helot revolts between 465 and 369, despite the declining number of Spartiates during that century and despite the great damage to Sparta that a successful helot revolt could have inflicted upon it, potentially ruinous, in fact, "when the Spartan army had to march out in haste to the battle of Mantinea" in 418 (244).
Johnston himself points to Rousseau's paradoxical recognition that "[f]reedom can only be maintained with the support of servitude"--a conclusion drawn from Sparta's dependence on the suppression of its helot population.
Eliot" and his alterego the "drunken helot," a "good English reviewer," and "Ezra Pound.
Their closed society of oligarchs and helot slaves meant that was no cost to their public signals.
8 percent of the fixed, long-term rate regulated contracts helot by offshore-only pipelines owned by interstates (like Sea Robin) are with producer-owned offshore wells.
boldly go into the future with a chapter on Geological Hazard Assessment well worth consulting when you plan your next holiday, and with a prediction (54) that in about 500 years' time Sparta will suffer the next earthquake as big as the one which triggered the Helot revolt in 464 B.
a helot than a citizen shaped for the tilling of the soil and the protection of the state".