Males of the latter genus can be recognized by their usually short embolus, with a proximal tegular lobe, distal hematodocha
highly reduced, and finger-like RTA; and females by their epigynum without distinct window, and copulatory ducts usually short (Zhang & Maddison 2015).
A basal hematodocha connects the subtegulum with the petiolus and alveolus of the cymbium.
One side of the subtegulum is connected with the cymbium by the basal hematodocha.
Alternating insertions with only a single expansion of the hematodocha
also occurred in Rabidosa spp.
Petiole: In distant outgroups, the petiole is a large and prominent sclerite in the wall of the basal hematodocha
A male that courts successfully mounts the female so they face in opposite directions, inserts a palp into one side of the female's epigynum, and expands the hematodocha once to force sperm into the female's copulatory tubes.
After insertion, the palpal hematodocha expanded a single time.
During copulation, the hematodocha
becomes visible as an expanding sac of haemolymph.
For purposes of our study, palpal insertions were recorded as successful only if the extreme proximal end of the hematodocha
was observed to visibly expand and the female abdomen concomitantly inflated with this expansion.