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(hĕm`ərĭj), escape of blood from the circulation (arteries, veins, capillaries) to the internal or external tissues. The term is usually applied to a loss of blood that is copious enough to threaten health or life. Slow bleeding may lead to anemiaanemia
, condition in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the circulating blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), an abnormally low level of hemoglobin in the individual cells, or both these conditions
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, while the sudden loss of a large amount of blood may cause shockshock,
any condition in which the circulatory system is unable to provide adequate circulation to the body tissues, also called circulatory failure or circulatory collapse. Shock results in the slowing of vital functions and in severe cases, if untreated, in death.
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. Hemorrhage from a cerebral artery can be fatal because of interference with brain function. Many diseases and disorders (e.g., hemophilia, hemorrhagic fevers, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer, scurvy, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever) as well as childbirth and many injuries can give rise to hemorrhage. Internal hemorrhage may require surgical intervention. See first aidfirst aid,
immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
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escape of blood from blood vessels that have been injured as a result of trauma or vascular disease.

Hemorrhages may be arterial (scarlet blood spurts like a fountain), venous (a flow of dark blood), capillary, or mixed. The intensity of bleeding depends on the size of the injured vessel and the condition of its wall. Blood may flow to the outside, into the lumen or body of an organ (stomach, intestine, brain), or into a cavity (abdominal, pleural). Bleeding is accompanied by pallor of the skin and mucosa, dizziness, weakness, dyspnea, thirst, a drop in arterial pressure, and a weak and rapid pulse. A large and rapid blood loss (25 percent of the blood volume or 4—4.5 percent of the body weight) produces loss of consciousness and may result in death. Persons weakened by a disease can be severely affected by even a small blood loss. In persons with atherosclerosis of the blood vessels, bleeding continues longer and is more difficult to stop. Bleeding in hemophilia patients, which arises when there is the slightest trauma, is extremely persistent.

Measures for stopping bleeding depend on its cause and source. Arrest of bleeding may be temporary or permanent. For temporarily stopping bleeding, a tourniquet, or pressure bandage, is applied to the extremities; vasoconstrictors, ice, or hemo-static sponges (on wounds) are also used. These measures often lead to complete cessation of bleeding; if bleeding does not stop it becomes necessary to resort to surgical methods (ligation of the vessel, suturing, removal of the injured or affected organ or of part of it) to achieve permanent cessation of bleeding. Blood transfusion or transfusion of blood substitutes that increase blood coagulation is a necessary part of treatment to control hemorrhage.



The escape of blood from the vascular system.


(US), hemorrhage
profuse bleeding from ruptured blood vessels
References in periodicals archive ?
IL-27 levels were elevated in the brain and blood of the mice an hour after hemorrhages and stayed high for three days, peaking at 24 hours later.
The hemorrhage was attributed to sensitivity of the conjunctiva to something while diving.
Conclusion: Surgical prognosis of ICH depends on the patients GCS received and size of hemorrhage at the time of presentation.
Massive secondary postpartum hemorrhage with uterine artery pseudoaneurysm after cesarean section.
sup][10],[11],[12],[13] However, in another clinical study, 2 of 126 meningiomas showed radiological macroscopic hemorrhages and 9 of 126 meningiomas showed microscopic hemorrhages.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is defined as the non-traumatic, abrupt onset of severe headache, altered level of consciousness or focal neurological deficit associated with a focal collection of blood within the brain parenchyma, but which is not due to trauma or hemorrhagic conversion of a cerebral infarction (Carhuapoma at al.
The fatal intracranial hemorrhage risk score (FICH) score was introduced to categorize acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients based on their risk of hemorrhage [6].
Hemorrhages may occur either within the cerebral ventricles which is the most common site in premature fetuses or subdural space or infratentorial fossa.
Provide a support program for patients, families, and staff for all significant hemorrhages.
Introduction: Post partum hemorrhage still remains a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries.
For instance, hypertensive hematoma is the most probable diagnosis when the hemorrhage is located in the nucleus of base; Amyloid angiopathy is suspected when there is one or more lobar hematomas associated to leucoaraiosis; rupture of aneurism is suggested by the presence of blood in the subarachnoid space; one ICH for coagulopathy may be followed by level of fluids inside the hematoma and, in traumatic hemorrhages, it is used to be found bruises and bone fractures associated.
Objective: Risk factors for hemorrhage due to gastric and/or duodenal ulcer in patients diagnosed by upper gastrointestinal (Gl) endoscopy were investigated in the present study.