hemorrhage

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hemorrhage

(hĕm`ərĭj), escape of blood from the circulation (arteries, veins, capillaries) to the internal or external tissues. The term is usually applied to a loss of blood that is copious enough to threaten health or life. Slow bleeding may lead to anemiaanemia
, condition in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the circulating blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), an abnormally low level of hemoglobin in the individual cells, or both these conditions
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, while the sudden loss of a large amount of blood may cause shockshock,
any condition in which the circulatory system is unable to provide adequate circulation to the body tissues, also called circulatory failure or circulatory collapse. Shock results in the slowing of vital functions and in severe cases, if untreated, in death.
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. Hemorrhage from a cerebral artery can be fatal because of interference with brain function. Many diseases and disorders (e.g., hemophilia, hemorrhagic fevers, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer, scurvy, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever) as well as childbirth and many injuries can give rise to hemorrhage. Internal hemorrhage may require surgical intervention. See first aidfirst aid,
immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
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Hemorrhage

 

escape of blood from blood vessels that have been injured as a result of trauma or vascular disease.

Hemorrhages may be arterial (scarlet blood spurts like a fountain), venous (a flow of dark blood), capillary, or mixed. The intensity of bleeding depends on the size of the injured vessel and the condition of its wall. Blood may flow to the outside, into the lumen or body of an organ (stomach, intestine, brain), or into a cavity (abdominal, pleural). Bleeding is accompanied by pallor of the skin and mucosa, dizziness, weakness, dyspnea, thirst, a drop in arterial pressure, and a weak and rapid pulse. A large and rapid blood loss (25 percent of the blood volume or 4—4.5 percent of the body weight) produces loss of consciousness and may result in death. Persons weakened by a disease can be severely affected by even a small blood loss. In persons with atherosclerosis of the blood vessels, bleeding continues longer and is more difficult to stop. Bleeding in hemophilia patients, which arises when there is the slightest trauma, is extremely persistent.

Measures for stopping bleeding depend on its cause and source. Arrest of bleeding may be temporary or permanent. For temporarily stopping bleeding, a tourniquet, or pressure bandage, is applied to the extremities; vasoconstrictors, ice, or hemo-static sponges (on wounds) are also used. These measures often lead to complete cessation of bleeding; if bleeding does not stop it becomes necessary to resort to surgical methods (ligation of the vessel, suturing, removal of the injured or affected organ or of part of it) to achieve permanent cessation of bleeding. Blood transfusion or transfusion of blood substitutes that increase blood coagulation is a necessary part of treatment to control hemorrhage.

A. B. GALITSKII

hemorrhage

[′hem·rij]
(medicine)
The escape of blood from the vascular system.

haemorrhage

(US), hemorrhage
profuse bleeding from ruptured blood vessels
References in periodicals archive ?
In addition, physicians should consider CCHF in the differential diagnosis of patients who have hemorrhagic signs and have recently returned from any area where CCHFV is endemic or prevalent.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: prevention and control limitations in a resource-poor country.
Viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Congo virus and dengue virus is endemic in Pakistan.
Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever: treatment and control strategy in admitted patients.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever disease is characterized by signs and symptoms like fever, nausea, vomiting, headache, myalgia, elevated liver enzymes, and mucocutaneous hemorrhage, as well as life-threatening intravenous coagulation and massive hemorrhages (7).
Hemorrhagic transformation has been reported in 13%-71% of AIS patients (10).
The report provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Hemorrhagic Shock
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Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever - Pipeline Review, H1 2015
4[degrees]F [>38[degrees]]), at least one hemorrhagic sign (petechial or purpural rash, bleeding, or thrombocytopenia), and a positive CCHF nucleic acid amplification test or anti-CCHF immunoglobulin M titer in a resident of Georgia.
Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 3 experimental groups (n = 6 per group):1) Normotensive rats (N) 2) Hemorrhagic shock rats (HS) and 3) Hemorrhagic shock rats treated with AG
In this study, serum/ urine levels of HS in the infected patients with CCHF that is an enveloped virus were studied and its impacts on the hemorrhagic events were investigated.