hemorrhagic fever


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Related to hemorrhagic fever: Korean hemorrhagic fever, Dengue hemorrhagic fever, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever

hemorrhagic fever

(hĕm'ərăj`ĭk), any of a group of viral diseases characterized by sudden onset, muscle and joint pain, fever, bleeding, and shock from loss of blood. Bleeding occurs in the form of leakage from capillaries in the internal organs and the skin and mucous membranes. The causative viruses may be transmitted to humans by insects, ticks, or rodents, but in the case of the African hemorrhagic fevers, Ebola and Marburg, the animal carrier is unknown. In addition to Ebola and Marburg, well-known hemorrhagic fevers include hantavirushantavirus,
any of a genus (Hantavirus) of single-stranded RNA viruses that are carried by rodents and transmitted to humans when they inhale vapors from contaminated rodent urine, saliva, or feces. There are many strains of hantavirus.
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, Lassa feverLassa fever
, an acute viral disease occurring mostly in W Africa, characterized by high fever, muscle aches, mouth ulcers, and bleeding in the skin in more severe cases. The disease was first recognized in Lassa, Nigeria, in 1969.
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, yellow feveryellow fever,
acute infectious disease endemic in tropical Africa and many areas of South and Central America. Yellow fever is caused by a virus transmitted by the bite of the female Aedes aegypti mosquito, which breeds in stagnant water near human habitations.
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, and a severe form of dengue called dengue hemorrhagic fever (see dengue feverdengue fever
, acute infectious disease caused by four closely related viruses and transmitted by the bite of the female Aedes mosquito; it is also known as breakbone fever and bone-crusher disease.
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; see also Ebola virusEbola virus
, a member of a family (Filovidae) of RNA viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. The virus, named for the region in Congo (Kinshasa) where it was first identified in 1976, emerged from the rain forest, where it survives in as yet unconfirmed hosts, possibly
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).

Ebola and Marburg are closely related, newly emergent viruses that have in recent years caused epidemics in central Africa, with very high rates of mortality. Hantavirus occurs in many different parts of the world and is spread to humans from field rodents via microscopic bits of their excretions that get into the air and are inhaled. It was originally known as a disease of Asia and Europe that primarily attacked the kidneys, but a more deadly pulmonary form of hantavirus infection has more recently caused numerous fatalities in the United States, Chile, and other countries. Lassa fever, also spread to humans from rodent excretions, occurs primarily in W Africa. Closely related to the Lassa virus are the Junin and Machupo viruses, which have caused outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in South America. Yellow fever, transmitted by the bite of a mosquito, still occurs in tropical areas despite largely successful control efforts. Dengue hemorrhagic fever, also spread by mosquitoes, has in recent years caused many fatalities among children in tropical countries.

There is usually no specific treatment to combat the viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. One exception is the drug ribavirin, which has been effective in treating Lassa fever and has also been used to treat a form of hantavirus infection and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Treatment generally consists of such supportive measures as the replacement of lost blood, the maintainence of fluid balance, and the alleviation of symptoms. Survival depends largely upon the virulence of the virus strain and the quality of treatment. An experimental vaccine for Ebola was developed and used in a limited manner against the strain that caused the 2013–15 West African outbreak, but its long-term effectiveness is unclear.

Bibliography

See R. Reston, The Hot Zone (1994).

References in periodicals archive ?
Director of the Epidemiology Department in East Darfur state Mohamed Joda told Sudan Tribune that the state didn't witness new cases of hemorrhagic fever disease but admitted that it killed one person who died in a hospital in the capital Khartoum where he had been transported for treatment since more than a week ago.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever among health care workers in Iran: a seroprevalence study in two endemic regions.
Experience with intravenous ribavirin in the treatment of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Korea.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Greece: isolation of the virus from Rhipicephalus bursa ticks and a preliminary serological survey.
Experimental vector incompetence of a soft tick, Ornithodoros sonrai (Acari: Argasidae), for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.
Meanwhile, other scientists who are analyzing blood samples from Thai children with severe dengue are investigating how this hemorrhagic fever incapacitates people.
The trial will provide important safety data required for the next phase of development of this innovative solution to counter one of the most lethal hemorrhagic fever viruses.
Towards an understanding of the migration of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.
Under the NIH grant, Tulane is leading a three-year study designed to develop diagnostic tools for viral hemorrhagic fevers, some of which are caused by arenaviruses that are potential bioterrorism agents due to their high fatality rate and ease of transmission.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) infection was first recognized in Turkey in 2002.
By ISLAMABAD, October 15, 2010 (Frontier Star): Pakistan's National Institute of Health (NIH) has confirmed that cases of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) and Dengue fever have been recorded in the country.
Pink Sheets: GMED), a Next Generation DM(TM) (Disease Management) company that uses its expertise in genomics to improve clinical outcomes in as many species as possible, announced today the expansion of its anti-viral trials to include viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever.

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