hantavirus

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hantavirus,

any of a genus (Hantavirus) of single-stranded RNA virusesvirus,
parasite with a noncellular structure composed mainly of nucleic acid within a protein coat. Most viruses are too small (100–2,000 Angstrom units) to be seen with the light microscope and thus must be studied by electron microscopes.
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 that are carried by rodents and transmitted to humans when they inhale vapors from contaminated rodent urine, saliva, or feces. There are many strains of hantavirus. The first to be isolated (1976) was the Hantaan virus (from the Han River in South Korea, which also gives the species its name). Hantaan virus and its related strains, Seoul virus and Puulmala virus, cause Korean hemorrhagic fever (more correctly, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome), a condition in which the capillaries of the circulatory system begin to leak blood. Although some people with the disease are nearly asymptomatic, in others it can lead to shock, acute kidney failure, and, in 10% of cases, death.

A second disease, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, was identified in the United States in 1993 and is caused by at least three strains of the virus. It is known to be carried by deer mice, white-footed mice, and cotton rats. This disease is much more deadly, causing flulike symptoms that can lead to fluid accumulation in the lungs and death. One of the pulmonary strains, the Sin Nombre virus (named for a Spanish massacre of Native Americans that occurred in the canyon where it was discovered), was the cause of a 1993 outbreak in the Four Corners area of the SW United States that killed 32 of 53 people known to have been infected. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome occurs sporadically in North America, with roughly one third of those known to be infected dying from the disease. Outbreaks of a hantavirus strain that apparently can be spread from person to person occurred in South America in 1996 and 1997. There is no vaccination for pulmonary hantavirus. Treatment includes respiratory and hemodynamic support; the antiviral drug ribavirin has been effective in some cases.

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Antigenic difference between viral strains causing classical and mild types of epidemic hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in China.
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Finland: ecology and virology of nephropathia epidemica.
There is no current therapy for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the European Union.
Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) are the causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the Americas (Peters et al.
Following this Orphan-Drug designation, ICN intends to file for an EMEA Marketing Authorisation for a medicinal product for ribavirin (Virazole(R)) intravenous treatment for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.
Patients with symptoms compatible with CCHF infection included patients who had a diagnosis of leptospirosis, chikungunya fever, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), Q fever, tularemia, brucellosis, and West Nile encephalitis.
April 29 /PRNewswire/ -- The national health authority of Yugoslavia has authorized SPI Pharmaceutical's (AMEX: SPI) Belgrade-subsidiary, ICN Galenika, to market the antiviral drug Virazole (ribavirin) in injectable form for the treatment of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS).
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by 2 lineages of Dobrava hantavirus, Russia.
These viruses cause life-threatening human diseases: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe (1).
Distribution of hantavirus serotypes Hantaan and Seoul causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and identification by hemagglutination inhibition assay.
To the Editor: Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) cause 2 clinical syndromes in humans: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the New World (1).
In humans, however, hantaviruses cause 2 diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia, and hantavirus (cardio)pulmonary syndrome in North and South America (6).

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