Neuropathy

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neuropathy

[nu̇′räp·ə·thē]
(medicine)
Any disease affecting neurons.

Neuropathy

 

a functional weakness of the nervous system accompanied by a decrease in the absolute threshold (also called the stimulus, or sensitivity, threshold); the condition is frequently congenital.

Neuropathy arises as a disturbance in the function of the autonomic nervous system owing to deleterious influences on the fetus as a whole (for example, infection in the pregnant mother, trauma, or poisoning) or on the individual embryonic cells (as occurs when the parents suffer from alcoholism). Family circumstances, upbringing, and illnesses suffered by the infant play a role in the pathogenesis of neuropathy. The symptoms usually emerge in childhood or adolescence. When neuropathy occurs in early childhood, disturbances of sleep and appetite are most characteristic; the infant has difficulty in falling asleep, awakes easily, suckles poorly, and frequently spits up. Later, vomiting occurs, and either diarrhea or constipation develop.

From the preschool years on, increased general excitability and the rapid onset of fatigue and exhaustion are observed, in addition to continued disturbances of sleep and appetite. Children who suffer from neuropathy blush easily in response to irritation. Motor hyperactivity, nervous tics, and stammering are frequent. In adolescence, autonomic-vascular instability becomes more acute, as evidenced by frequently occurring nervous palpitation, abrupt shifts in blood pressure, headaches, dizzy spells, and fainting spells. The prognosis is favorable, with the neuropathic symptoms usually disappearing with age.

REFERENCES

Simson, T. Nevropatii, psikhopatii i reaktivnye sostoianiia mladencheskogo vozrasta. Moscow-Leningrad, 1929.
Sukhareva, G. E. Klinicheskie lektsii po psikhiatrii detskogo vozrasta, vol. 2. Moscow, 1959.

L. M. SHMAONOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Twelve sural nerve biopsies with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) were included in the study
In this study we aimed to compare vasculitic neuropathy and axonal neuropathy without an identifiable cause because both groups show axonal degeneration in their pathology and a demyelinating hereditary neuropathy HNPP as a control group.
The computer pallesthesiometry method can be widely used in clinical practice for diagnostics of hereditary neuropathies with genetically determined pathology of myelin sheath (myelinopathy), including CMT, hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies, Dejerine-Sottas disease.
Estimation of the mutation frequencies in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies: a European collaborative study.
PMP22 related neuropathies: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and Hereditary Neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies.
Estimation of the mutation frequencies in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP): a European collaborative study.
However, absence of skin lesions and thickened nerves, negative slit skin smears and perhaps a family history suggestive of a hereditary neuropathy, could suggest the correct diagnosis.
A clinically distinct hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) has been found allelic to CMT1A, in which deletion of the same 1.
Two examples of diseases caused by alterations in gene dosage are the autosomal dominant demyelinating peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) [1] and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP).
Two well-documented diseases known to be caused by gene copy number alterations are the hereditary peripheral neuropathies Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) [1] and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP).
2-kb region of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A repeat sequence: new tools for molecular diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A.

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