In a forward genetic screen, I found a link between metabolites in the hexosamine
pathway and cellular protein quality control.
Mechanistically, both hyperglycemia and glycemic excursions result in oxidative stress, likely through overproducing superoxide by the mitochondrial electron-transfer chain (5, 6), which generates advanced glycation end products, activates protein kinase C and nuclear factor-[kappa]B, enhances polyol activity, and increases hexosamine
pathway flux (1, 7).
The amount of hexosamine
was determined by comparing with a standard curve.
Hyperglycemia causes added damage to blood vessels by also inducing the hexosamine
Assessment of granulation tissue on every fourth day showed significant reduction in bacterial count with significant level of collagen, hexosamine
, uronic acid, and superoxide dismutase in the treated group (P Less than 0.
Gotu kola has several pharmacological actions: for example after oral and topical administration in rats, increased cellular hyperplasia and collagen production were noted at the site of injury, measured by increased granulation tissue levels of DNA, protein, collagen and hexosamine
Chemical analysis of polysaccharides from ascidians reveals sulfate ester, high galactone content and small amounts of glucose and hexosamine
in proportions that vary among the different species.
One of the postulated mechanisms of action of Benfotiamine is that it blocks three major pathways (the hexosamine
pathway, the advanced glycation end product formation pathway, and the diacylglycerol (DAG)-protein kinase C (PKC) pathway) by probable removal of glyceryl aldehyde 3-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate through the activation of the pentos phosphate enzyme transketolase.
Heparin is a glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide with a carbohydrate backbone consisting of alternating uronic acid and hexosamine
Proton MRS of a child with Sandhoff disease reveals elevated brain hexosamine
In essence, glycosaminoglycans are long unbranched chains of repeating disaccharide units, each comprising an N-acetyl hexosamine
and either a hexose or hexuronic acid.
The concentrated supernatant was then analyzed for total carbohydrate, phosphorous, protein, glucose, and hexosamine
by chemical methods and by high-pressure liquid chromatography.