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higher educationthe highest level of post-school education (see BINARY SYSTEM, UNIVERSITY, POLYTECHNIC, NEW UNIVERSITY). Although great differences between systems of higher education exist internationally, there are also some important common tendencies.
The expansion of higher education has been a feature of most countries in recent decades and the movement from ‘élite’ to MASS HIGHER EDUCATION has become well-established in most developed and in many developing countries, in which an increasing proportion of the relevant age group participate in higher education. The main differences between higher educational systems exist in the extent to which these are ‘unitary’ or have become ‘differentiated’ into separate subsystems (see Teichler, 1988), and in the extent to which individual systems have expanded. In the US and Japan, for example, enrolments in higher education either approach or exceed 50% of the relevant age group. The extent to which the expansion of higher education is effective in improving the economic performance and general social wellbeing of modern societies (see HUMAN CAPITAL, POSTCAPITALIST SOCIETY, INFORMATION SOCIETY, SOCIAL DEMAND FOR EDUCATION), or has consequences which are less desirable (see CREDENTIALISM, SCREENING AND THE SCREENING HYPOTHESIS), remains disputed. A balanced view would be to accept that this expansion has both positive and negative outcomes which need to be carefully analysed. See also GRADUATE LABOUR MARKET, INTELLECTUAL LABOUR.
the aggregate of systematized knowledge and practical skills that allow theoretical and practical problems to be solved by a given type of training, utilizing and creatively developing the modern achievements of science, technology, and culture. The term “higher education” is also applied to the training of highly skilled specialists in the fields of economics, science, technology, and culture at various types of higher schools, which accept persons who have successfully completed secondary general-education schools or secondary specialized-education institutions.
In the countries of the ancient East (such as China, Egypt, Babylonia, and Assyria) schools of various levels came into being many thousands of years before the Common Era. In the higher-level schools the youth studied the works of philosophers and poets, including some information on the laws of nature, the celestial bodies, minerals, plants, and animals. The philosophers of ancient Greece devoted a great deal of attention to developing systems of education for the youth, also providing in them for the higher level of education. In the three-stage system of education that he proposed for aristocratic youth, Plato (428-348 B.C.) set aside the highest, or third, level for that small portion of the youth who had exhibited capabilities for abstract thought, for studying subjects not in their applied sense but rather on a philosophical-theoretical level (for example, astronomy not for purposes of navigation but for meditation upon the infinity of the universe). Those who graduated from this level (at the age of 30) and who manifested exceptional talent in philosophy would continue their education until the age of 35 and would prepare themselves to become the rulers of the state. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) considered that the development of each person’s natural capabilities was to be accomplished by means of combined education (in the physical, moral, and mental aspects) in three levels, of which the last would be the higher-level school. During the period of Hellenism in Alexandria (third century B.C. through the fifth century A.D.) higher-level schools began to be established, where, in connection with the differentiation of learning, philosophy, philology, medicine, and mathematics were studied separately.
This division of education into levels has been retained down to our own time. As science, technology, and culture developed, their nomenclature changed, intermediate levels began to appear, the content was broadened, and the scholarly level of education at each stage rose constantly. However, the concept of higher education in the modern sense began to take shape only in the Middle Ages. During the 11th and 12th centuries secular higher schools began to appear within which instruction and scholarly work were organically connected in a unified educational process, and not only theoretical studies but also observations, experience, and experimentation formed the basis of instruction. (The first secular medical school in Italy was established in Salerno during the llth century.) During the 12th and 13th centuries universities began to arise in various countries of Europe (Italy, Spain, France, and England), and the first Slavic university was established in Prague in 1348. Medieval universities consisted of theological, medical, and law faculties with a term of instruction lasting from five to six years.
In the establishment of education on the territory of the USSR (within its present-day borders) at a level that was the highest for its time, a large role was played by the Georgian Colchis Higher Rhetorical School (fourth century) as well as by academies founded during the llth and 12th centuries (Gelati, Ikalto, and others). The Gelati Academy (near Kutaisi) also became a center for secular education; it gave courses in arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, philosophy, grammar, rhetoric, and music. Moreover, at these Georgian academies studies were conducted on the history of Georgia and neighboring states, as well as in medicine, law, natural science, and Greek and Arabic.
In 1632 the first Russo-Ukrainian higher educational institution was opened—the Kiev Mogila Academy, in which the Slavic, Latin, and Greek languages were studied, as well as the “seven liberal arts” (grammar, rhetoric, dialectics, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music) and theology. In 1687 the Slavic, Greek, and Latin Academy was organized in Moscow; among its graduates were L. F. Magnitskii, V. K. Trediakovskii, and M. V. Lomonosov.
Medieval higher education was subordinate to scholasticism and to a considerable extent pursued the goal of providing the groundwork for theological dogmas and of propagating religion. The liberation of higher education from the influence of the church and from scholasticism was facilitated by the major scientific discoveries of the Renaissance (from the 14th century—the early Renaissance in Italy—through the 16th century) in the fields of mathematics, mechanics, and astronomy (Leonardo da Vinci, N. Copernicus, J. Kepler, Galileo, R. Descartes, I. Newton, and G. Leibniz) as well as by achievements in the field of medicine. Scholasticism was subjected to sharp criticism by the English philosopher F. Bacon.
Teachers and humanistic writers such as Vitorino da Feltre, Erasmus of Rotterdam, J. L. Vives, F. Rabelais, and M. Montaigne were opposed to the monopolistic control of education and instruction by the Catholic clergy as well as being against scholastic education, and they proposed new methods of instruction, based upon the principles of developing in the youth independent thought, memory, certain skills, and an intelligent study of the laws of nature. At the same time the differentiation of science continued. Mathematics was broken down into algebra, arithmetic, and trigonometry; physics into mechanics, optics, and the study of magnetism; biology into botany and zoology, and so on. The invention of printing in the 15th century was of exceptionally great importance for the spread of knowledge. In universities and academies the teaching process began to be improved, experience was generalized, and experimentation was introduced on a broader scale. The outstanding scholarly achievements of the Renaissance were set forth in the pedagogical works of the very great Slavic educational specialist J. A. Komensky [Comenius], who proposed a well-ordered, continuous, graded system of education, wherein the final stage was to be the academy.
During the 17th century laboratories were established; the principle of free scientific research and teaching was proclaimed, which allowed progressive scholars to depart from scholasticism. The first state scientific academies were organized (in France, Britain, and Germany), and scientific journals began to be published on a systematic basis. During the Age of Enlightenment interest in the study of the natural sciences began to increase in connection with major discoveries in the fields of physics, astronomy, and physiology, and in other branches of science.
The growth of technology, mining, navigation, and trade at the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th and the effort of the strengthened bourgeoisgentry state to train sluzhilye liudi (military service class), created conditions for the development of higher education in Russia. In 1725 the Academy of Sciences was founded in St. Petersburg, and attached to it were the Academic University and a secondary school. An outstanding role in establishing Russian higher education was played by M. V. Lomonosov. He strove to replace ecclesiastical-scholastic education by a secular kind, based on the study of natural science and mathematics; he also argued that the students should develop theoretical thinking and the ability to conduct laboratory experiments and to observe physical-chemical and natural phenomena. Only in this way—thought Lomonosov—would there occur the mental and moral perfection of the human personality. In 1758, Lomonosov was entrusted with the “superintendence” of the University of the Academy of Sciences. He worked out curricula which provided that during the first year of instruction students were compelled to attend all lectures “so that they will get an idea of all branches of learning, and so that each student can see in which field he is most capable and for which he has a natural bent”; in the second year there would be only specialized cycles of lectures; and in the third year the students would be attached to individual professors for instruction and “study in one field of learning.”
In 1755, Moscow University was established, for which Lomonosov developed the organizational structure, the curricula, and the programs. In its staff and in its approach to the task of education Moscow University became a clear expression of a Russian higher educational institution; it became the cradle for materialist doctrine and a school of preparation for Russian scholars. The professors of the university, such as N. N. Popovskii, A. A. Barsov, and other students of Lomonosov, waged an active struggle for the flowering of native Russian science and education.
The transition from the manufactory stage of capitalism to the factory system and the industrial revolution which followed it (as a result of the invention and use of the’steam engine) during the second half of the 18th century in Britain and subsequently in a number of other countries brought about the development of higher technical education. In 1773 the Mining School (now the Leningrad Mining Institute) was founded in St. Petersburg; it laid the foundation of engineering education in Russia. Subjects studied at the school included arithmetic, algebra, geometry, mine surveying, mineralogy, metallurgy, drawing, chemistry, mechanics, physics, French, German, and Latin. The number of subjects was gradually expanded, and at the beginning of the 19th century included paleontology, mining and assaying techniques, mining statistics and law, mechanical drawing from models, world and Russian history, geography, logic, zoology, botany, pure mathematics, and architecture. The expansion of the number of subjects ensured a broadness of scope in the specialists who were being trained at the school.
Great influence on the development of higher education in Russia during the 18th century and the first half of the 19th was exerted by such Russian educators as la. P. Kovalevskii, D. S. Anichkov, and S. E. Desnitskii, who strove to extend and democratize higher education. The materialist philosopher A. N. Radishchev was the first in Russia to set forth a program of instruction based on a broad and in-depth study of the humanities, natural sciences, and mathematics. The Russian mathematician N. I. Lobachevskii, rector of the University of Kazan, considered that the goal of scientific learning was not to develop concepts that had no connection with life but rather to study the real world. He struggled to organize a kind of education that would provide university graduates with a knowledge of the latest achievements of Russian and foreign scholarship.
The development of industry and the growth of the public’s cultural interests following the peasant reform of 1861 required not only an increase in the quantity of specialists but also an increase in the quality of their training.
The activity of the representatives of Russian revolutionary-democratic thought—V. G. Belinskii, A. I. Herzen, N. G. Chernyshevskii, N. A. Dobroliubov, and D. I. Pisarev—as well as educational specialists such as T. N. Granovskii, K. D. Ushinskii, and N. I. Pirogov assisted in the solution of many scholarly and methodological problems of higher education.
During the 1870’s Russia, like many countries of Western Europe and America, made an effort to give women access to higher education; advanced courses for women were organized in Moscow, Kazan, St. Petersburg, and Kiev. However, it was only after the Great October Socialist Revolution that women received equal rights with men to education, also including higher education.
The development and improvement of Russian higher education at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th was greatly influenced by the following scholars, who created their own schools of scientific pedagogical principles: V. V. Markovnikov, A. G. Stoletov, I. I. Mechnikov, D. K. Chernov, N. A. Umov, P. N. Lebedev, K. A. Timiriazev, D. I. Mendeleev, A. S. Popov, N. E. Zhukovskii, and I. P. Pavlov. The scholars of the Moscow Higher Technical School—A. V. Letnikov, N. A. Shaposhnikov, P. K. Khudiakov, A. P. Sidorov, A. P. Gavrilenko, and V. I. Grinevetskii—created the Russian system of higher technical education, based on a close tie between in-depth theoretical instruction and practical classes conducted in production workshops and laboratories. This system received wide recognition abroad as the “Russian method of instruction” and was distinguished by the highest prizes and awards at international exhibitions (in Philadelphia in 1876 and in Paris in 1900). D. I. Mendeleev attached great importance to the higher levels of teacher training, upon the status of which, as he asserted, all branches of higher education depend. N. E. Zhukovskii considered it necessary for the purposes of training creative specialists to draw students into scientific research work and prospecting. At the Moscow Higher Technical School he organized a student scientific circle for conducting research on the problems of aeronautics. Similar types of student circles were established by outstanding scholars at other higher educational institutions as well. A revolutionizing influence on the content of higher education in Russia and other countries was exerted by the doctrine of K. Marx and F. Engels.
After the Great October Socialist Revolution the goals and tasks of higher education were altered in a radical manner. “Only by radically transforming the teaching, organization, and education of the youth, will we be able to achieve that which, as the results of the efforts of the younger generation, would be the creation of a society not like the old one, but rather a communist society” (V. I. Lenin, Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 41, p. 301). The system of higher education was restructured in accordance with the decree signed by Lenin (on Sept. 2, 1921), ratifying the new Statute on the Higher Educational Institutions of the RSFSR.
The Soviet higher school began to provide the students with broad, fundamental, general knowledge as well as knowledge of the modern achievements of science, technology, and culture for a more in-depth study of specialized disciplines. Higher education was structured so that during the instruction period the students develop a Marxist-Leninist world view, creative capabilities, the ability to independently analyze and correlate their knowledge, make observations, and conduct experiments. The practical training of students was intensified. The Leninist idea concerning the organic connection of theory with practice was made the basis of the organization of the educational process in higher schools. Soviet higher schools began to train specialists who had mastered both theory and practice in their field, possessed organizational skills, and were capable, immediately upon graduating.from a higher educational institution and without any further training, of working in their fields of specialization. In the decree of the Central Committee of the RCP (Bolshevik) On the Immediate Tasks in the Matter of Establishing a Connection Between Higher Educational Institutions and Production, dated Jan. 12, 1925, it was pointed out that the entire structure of teaching and the entire life of the higher educational institutions must be connected with practical experience as closely as possible and that this connection must grow from year to year. Production practice has grown in scope and has become an essential part of the curriculum of every higher educational institution. The goal of such practical experience is to give the student an understanding of that environment and those conditions within which he will be working.
Improving the quality of training of specialists was the higher school’s principal task. In the decree of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR On the Educational Programs and Routine in Higher Schools and Technicums, dated Sept. 19, 1932, ways were established for the further improvement of the training of specialists, for equipping them with a profound knowledge of the scientific bases of modern technology and a knowledge of the Soviet economic system and its planning.
The Communist Party and the Soviet government have devoted a great deal of attention to making higher schools more democratic and to attracting the masses to education. The decree of the Council of People’s Commissars On the Preferential Acceptance of Members of the Proletariat and the Poorest Peasantry Into Higher Educational Institutions, dated Aug. 2, 1918, stated that “it is absolutely necessary to accept first persons from the ranks of the proletariat and the poorest peasantry, who would be granted scholarships on a wide scale.” Instruction became tuition-free, and in order to ensure broad access to youth from the working class and peasantry, rabfaki (workers’ schools) were created, which permitted students to complete their secondary general education and prepared them for instruction at higher educational institutions. Taking into consideration the increasing desire of the adult population to acquire education and skills without interrupting their production work, a system of evening and correspondence higher education was established.
The development of a network of higher educational institutions in all the Union republics and the expansion of the training of specialists in the USSR were carried out in close association with the plans for developing all sectors of the national economy. During the academic year 1914-15, Russia (within its present-day boundaries) had 127,400 persons studying at 105 higher educational institutions, whereas in 1970 there were approximately 4.6 million students in 805 such institutions. As a result of the implementation of the Leninist nationality policy, all the Union republics in their number of students enrolled at higher educational institutions per 10,000 population surpassed the largest capitalist countries of Europe.
Already during the first few years of Soviet power the caste system for selecting the faculty members of higher schools, which had prevailed in prerevolutionary times, was done away with. The Statute on the Faculty of Higher Educational Institutions, ratified by the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR on Jan. 20, 1924, stated that any persons possessing sufficient scholarly training, determined on the basis of their works and upon references from appropriate institutions and individual specialists, may be faculty members of higher educational institutions. Along with this, V. I. Lenin emphasized the need to attract the former teachers and professors (of prerevolutionary training) into teaching activity. During the first few years of Soviet power measures were taken for an annual expansion in training scholarly and teaching staff personnel, especially by means of graduate work. On Jan. 1, 1970, there were 327,200 teaching staff members in higher educational institutions, including 10,400 doctors of sciences and 95,300 candidates of sciences.
The existence in the USSR of various forms of instruction—daytime, correspondence, and evening—in the native language (at Soviet higher educational institutions teaching is carried on in more than 70 languages of the peoples and nationality groups of the USSR), privileges (free education, scholarships, dormitories) granted by the state to students at higher educational institutions, additional paid vacations and a shortened work-day for those who are studying without interrupting their production work, and a broad network of courses in preparation for entering a higher educational institution have made higher education accessible to all citizens who have completed their secondary education.
The fundamental tasks of higher education in the USSR during the building of communism have been set by the Party Program adopted at the Twenty-second Congress of the CPSU (1961), by resolutions of the Twenty-fourth Congress of the CPSU (1971), and by decrees of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Soviet government. The Soviet higher school has been called upon to prepare broadly educated specialists, active builders of a communist society who possess strong communist convictions and who are unreservedly devoted to their socialist motherland and to proletarian internationalism. The most important task of the Soviet higher school is the communist education of the student body; each higher educational institution is creating a system of educational measures that will ensure a high ideological-political and scholarly level of specialist training.
The branches of higher education, the types of higher educational institutions, and the kinds of training provided for highly qualified specialists have taken shape in relation to the development of science, technology, culture, industry, and the needs of the national economy for personnel with higher education. In the civil state institutions of higher education—universities; economic, poly technical, engineering (branch), agricultural, medical, pedagogical, and physical education institutes; and higher institutions of art—training of personnel is carried on for various sectors of the national economy, science, and culture in the natural science, technical, and humanities groups of specialties. The state military higher educational institutions train officers for the various service branches in specialized branches of military science; higher Party schools of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Higher Komsomol School of the Central Committee of the Lenin Young Communist League train leaders for Party, Komsomol, and Soviet organs. The Higher Trade-Union Movement School of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions trains qualified trade-union functionaries; higher educational institutions of the Central Union of Consumers’ Societies of the USSR train employees for commerce and public eating places. (In addition to the state higher educational institutions there are seminaries in the USSR.) The terms of instruction in higher educational institutions, as a rule, range from four to six years.
The natural science, technical, and humanities groups of specialties include the following branches of education: geology, mining, power engineering, metallurgy, machine building and instrument manufacture, power machine building, radio and electronics, forest engineering, chemical technology, construction and architecture, geodesy, technology, hydrometeorology, agriculture, transportation, economics, law, medicine, physical education, biology, physics, mechanics and mathematics, philosophy, history, philology, journalism, teacher training, library science and bibliography, art studies, music, theater, and art.
The system of higher education is developing in accordance with the needs of the country’s national economy. The proportions of those graduating from higher educational institutions in 1970 break down as follows: engineering and technical and economics specialities, 49.6 percent; humanities and natural sciences, 35.6 percent, agriculture, 7.7 percent; and medicine, 7.1 percent.
Present-day scientific and technical progress is affected most by achievements in the social and natural sciences, particularly mathematics, mechanics, physics, chemistry, and biology. The training of specialists in these branches of learning is carried out in the universities. University education is the leading branch, moreover, not only by types of specializations but also by methods of training specialists; in one form or another, universities reflect the latest trends in the development of scholarship—first in the optional, and then in the required courses, and finally, in new specializations and specialties which are often the basis for organizing higher educational institutions of a new type.
During the last few years the need has arisen to train specialists of complex types, such as engineer-mathematicians, engineer-physicists, physician-biochemists, and physician-biophysicists. Sometimes specialists of the complex-type are trained by higher educational institutions together with appropriate enterprises and institutions: during the first three years theoretical instruction (in general-scientific and general-technical subjects) is conducted at the higher educational institution, whereas further specialized training is provided at the enterprises and organizations where the graduates will be working.
The training of specialists of all types is carried out on a scientific-theoretical level, established periodically by the state in accordance with the achievements of science, technology, and culture for each group of specialties at the country’s higher educational institutions. The broadness of the profile of a specialist is determined by the degree of in-depth study of the fundamental branches of learning (social sciences, mechanics and mathematics, and natural sciences) and the degree of mastery of Marxist-Leninist methodology. The optimum relation between theoretical and practical training is determined by the type of specialty. Thus, the mandatory classwork and production practice in the engineering-technical specialties amounts to 22 percent, in the natural sciences 21-33 percent (depending on the type of specialty), the humanities 15-23 percent, and economics 24 percent of the total number of instruction weeks planned for theoretical classes.
An organic link between theory and practice is also attained by means of an alternation in each discipline between lectures and laboratory classes, between practical experience and seminar classes. For each group of specialties the most rational relation between these kinds of classes has been established. Thus, in the mathematics specialty 42.3 percent of the total time planned for classes is devoted to lectures, 13.3 percent to laboratory sessions, 22.6 percent to practical work, and 11.3 percent to seminars. In the specialties of machine building the corresponding figures are 31.6 percent, 17.6 percent, 45.9 percent, and 4.9 percent; in jurisprudence the corresponding figures are 44.4 percent, 9.3 percent, 34.4 percent, and 11.6 percent.
For every specialty a certain complex of disciplines is selected, the study of which in combination with classwork and production practice ensures the acquisition of modern scientific knowledge along with the mastery of the methods of scientific and practical work. The ratio between theoretical and practical instruction and the time devoted to theoretical classes, examination sessions, classwork and production practice, vacations, diploma thesis (project) or state examinations, as well as the kinds and sequence (by semesters) of disciplines to be studied with an indication of the required courses and the amount of independent study to be done by the students per week in each subject are all determined by a basic methodological document, the curriculum, compiled for each specialty. The curriculum also indicates the specializations with a list of subjects in each. These specializations delimit a more advanced study of a certain narrow field of a given specialty. The content of each discipline (and the student’s independent work in it) is determined by the syllabus.
All disciplines in the curriculum are divided into required courses—general scientific, general engineering (at higher technical educational institutions), and special; al’ternativnye (the student must choose a certain number of courses from a list), and fakul’tativnye (the student may choose courses which are so listed and they may or may not be in his specialty). In all specialties, regardless of their type, cycles of social sciences are studied (history of the CPSU, political economy, Marxist-Leninist philosophy, and scientific communism). For each group of specialties required subjects are selected, corresponding to the type of training to be received by the specialist. For example, in engineering (machine building) specialties studies are carried out in higher mathematics, physics, chemistry, theoretical mechanics, theory of mechanisms and machines, machine parts, the science of metals, the study of materials, strength of materials, electrical engineering, electronics, hydraulics, and other general-scientific and general-engineering disciplines, in addition to subjects in technology; machine design and construction; equipment and apparatus; technical aesthetics; the economics and organization of production, labor, and management; the fundamentals of automation and automation of production processes; the utilization of computer technology for solving engineering and economic problems; and labor safety. In their general-engineering and specialized disciplines the students must complete course projects (papers). Serious attention is paid to education in the humanities (in addition to the complex of social sciences, Marxist-Leninist aesthetics and ethics are taught, as well as atheism, a foreign language, and so on) and to the aesthetic and ethical education of the students; required and optional classes are conducted in physical education and sports. Elective courses allow the students to study more deeply branches of knowledge that are interesting to them and to become acquainted with the latest achievements in science, technology, and culture.
Disciplines of an alternative nature (al’ternativnye courses) may be changed at the discretion of subdepartments and departments, depending upon the development of branches of science and the goals of training specialists.
The proportion of each group of disciplines within the curricula depends upon the type of specialty and upon the specialization. For example, in the university specialty of mathematics (which has a term of instruction lasting five years) 12.7 percent of the instruction time is devoted to the study of social sciences, 60 percent is allocated to general-scientific disciplines (including a foreign language), 8.8 percent to special subjects, 15.3 percent to al’ternativnye courses, and 3.2 percent to physical education and sports. In engineering-technical specialties (technology of machine building, metal-cutting machine tools, and instruments) social and economic disciplines occupy 11.8 percent of the time, general science 26.1 percent, general engineering 28 percent, special courses 24 percent, alternative subjects 2.5 percent, foreign language 4.7 percent, physical culture and sports 3.1 percent; in medical specialties (general practice) social sciences occupy 5.7 percent of the time, general scientific disciplines 38 percent, and specialized subjects 50 percent. These proportions may be altered somewhat, depending on the development of science, technology, and culture. In the lower-level courses, as a rule, study is concentrated upon general-scientific and general-engineering (in higher technical educational institutions) disciplines that are approximately the same for closely related specialties. The development of science and technology has brought about the continuous flow of new scientific information and data on practical experience. In connection with this, in each discipline the scientific material to be studied is systematically specified (with a refinement of its methodological treatment), taking into consideration the amount of teaching time and the prospects for the development of science and technology. A special problem in selecting material for study is presented by interdisciplinary, allied branches of knowledge (because of their heterogeneous nature), at the juncture of which major scientific discoveries have been made.
The content of practical instruction is determined by the type of specialty. Thus, in the first two years of engineering-technical specialties the students master workers’ skills during instructional practice, in the third year they engage in technological practice, and in the fourth, in specialized production practice. During their period of production practice the students, as a rule, are engaged in direct production activities as skilled workers, technicians, and engineers in laboratories, design offices, and the like. Their production training is completed during a period of pregraduation practical work (in the fifth year), in the course of which the students collect material, and on its basis they work out their diploma project (thesis).
The training of specialists with higher education without interrupting their production work and the increase in their qualifications are accomplished through systems of evening and correspondence courses. During 1970 the day system of higher education trained specialists in 385 specialties; correspondence system, 255 specialties; and evening system, 252 specialties. In higher education by correspondence courses the subject-course system of instruction has been adopted; the student is obliged to appear at the higher educational institution only for a laboratory-examination session to complete all laboratory projects and to take course credit tests and examinations. At the day and evening higher educational institutions (departments and divisions) instruction is carried on by means of the course system; the student must attend all classes, which in the evening system, as a rule, are conducted four times a week for four hours. A form of instruction that is intermediate between instruction with an interruption and without an interruption of production is the form that has been set up at factory-based higher technical educational institutions, whose organizational bases are large industrial enterprises with up-to-date equipment. Here instruction is combined with the students’ production work in all courses (except for the period of the diploma project, when the students who are working on their diploma theses spend full-time on their studies). The subject matter of the laboratory work in special disciplines and of course papers and diploma projects, as a rule, is closely related to the type of production engaged in. The terms of instruction in the evening and correspondence systems of higher education are six to 12 months longer than in the corresponding specialties in daytime divisions. In evening and correspondence higher educational institutions (department) and factory-based higher technical educational institutions, the tie between theoretical instruction and practical work is much closer. In connection with the fact that practical skills are acquired by the evening and correspondence students on the production line, enterprises organize their rotational transfer from one job to another so that they may acquire a more in-depth practical mastery in the type of specialty which they have chosen at the higher educational institution. In the evening and correspondence systems the main attention is focused on the students’ theoretical training and on their completion of the full cycle of laboratory sessions and practical work, as established for daytime higher educational institutions in the corresponding specialties. The most important problem in organizing the educational process is planning all the different types of classes, including the students’ independent work. This is achieved with the help of logical-mathematical modeling of the educational process and by working out complex schedules with the help of computers as well as graph theory, which allows the optimum logical sequence to be determined in the study of individual disciplines in addition to establishing an organic connection between disciplines and their branches. In order to intensify the educational process, broad use is made of all possible technical means of instruction (slides, films, television, and sound recordings), the use of which is automated to the greatest possible degree, as well as cybernetic systems. New methods of instruction are being developed that allow the educational process to be intensified and, more importantly, individualized, for example, audiovisual, programmed, and combined instruction. Moreover, numerous psychological-pedagogical research studies are being conducted with an experimental set-up of various types of classes. Higher educational institutions are carrying out a great deal of scientific research into the students’ time budget and their susceptibility to fatigue during classwork in order to find the most efficient forms of the educational process.
Within the Soviet higher school the optimum combination within the educational process of required courses and independent work by the students has been determined. The proportion of the students’ independent work increases as they proceed from year to year. Independent work helps to intensively develop thought, activity, and initiative in the students, as well as helping them to master the methods of scientific research and of conducting experiments. Elements of a research nature in laboratory sessions and in course papers (projects) are constantly being made more complex; the degree of the students’ independence in solving creative problems is increased as they approach the concluding stage of instruction—the completion and defense of their diploma thesis (project) or taking the state examinations. Many diploma theses (projects) are scientific research studies, which are published in the reports and bulletins of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and other scientific collections. Diploma projects that are carried out on real problems (the solution of which is of interest to some scientific or production organization) are often introduced into production either completely or partially.
The systematic raising of the scientific level of specialist training is ensured by the active scientific research of departments, which are also attracting students into this work.
In order to raise the level of scientific research within higher educational institutions, problem laboratories have been organized, as well as computer centers, and in certain institutions, scientific research institutes, where urgent scientific problems are being worked on. The network of these scientific establishments is expanding each year. Many higher educational institutions have become leading scientific centers in various branches of science, technology, and culture.
Among the most pressing problems facing the long-term planning of contemporary higher education are establishing the types of specialists and the contents of their training and determining the national economy’s need for specialists in connection with the development of scientific and technical progress. These problems are being solved simultaneously with prognostications on the growth of science, technology, and culture. Proposals are under study for a greater differentiation in the training of specialists relative to the sphere of their future activity; the terms of instruction are also being investigated. The most important problems are developing pedagogical principles for higher schools, discovering the psychology of the student youth, and also improving methods of instruction for the purpose of intensifying the training of personnel.
A well-designed system for increasing the qualifications of specialists with higher education has been established. Each specialist must pass through this system at least every five or six years. A system for raising the qualifications of the teaching staffs at higher educational institutions has also been created. For these purposes special institutes and departments for increasing the qualifications of specialists employed in the national economy and departments for increasing the qualifications of teachers at higher educational institutions have been organized. The high scientific level and democratic foundation of higher education in the USSR have received worldwide recognition. Students from more than 100 countries, including capitalist countries, are enrolled in Soviet higher educational institutions.
Higher education has also attained great successes in other socialist countries. The right of the working people to a higher education is affirmed by their constitutions; and higher education is accessible to all citizens who have completed their secondary education, regardless of sex, race, nationality, social origin, or property status. Tuition is free, and instruction is conducted in the native language. An extensive network of universities and branch institutes has been established. The number of students enrolled in higher educational institutions per 10,000 population in comparison to their number under the bourgeois-landowning system had increased by 1968 as follows: in Poland, sevenfold; in Bulgaria and Hungary, more than sixfold; in Czechoslovakia, fivefold; and in Rumania, 4V2 times. During the 1969-70 academic year there were 26 higher educational institutions in Bulgaria (approximately 86,000 students), 54 in the German Democratic Republic (GDR; 123,000 students), 84 in Poland (322,000 students), and 87 in Hungary (79,000 students). The number of students in the higher educational institutions of Rumania has increased almost sixfold; in Hungary, more than sixfold; in Yugoslavia, 12-fold; and in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, 77-fold. In the Korean Democratic People’s Republic prior to the country’s liberation there was not a single higher educational institution, whereas during the 1960’s there were about 100 in operation.
Before the establishment of the people’s power, there was a preponderance of humanities specialties in the higher educational institutions of these countries; during the 1950’s and 1960’s engineering specialties began to develop. Thus, in Bulgaria not a single engineer was trained prior to Sept. 9, 1944, whereas the higher educational institutions of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria have graduated more than 40,000 engineers over the last two decades, and by 1980 the contingent of those studying in engineering specialties will be increased to 55-60 percent of the total number of students. Before the revolution the universities of Cuba basically graduated specialists in the humanities, but in 1969 they were training specialists in more than 30 specialties, including specialists in science and technology and medicine.
In the higher schools of a number of socialist countries the list of specialties has been curtailed at the expense of broadening the types of training of personnel; upon graduating from a higher educational institution, a narrow specialization is carried out (the so-called postdiploma instruction) directly in the organization in which the young specialist will be working. For example, in Czechoslovakia the new list has been curtailed from 145 to 108 specialties. Along with the reduction in the number of specialties, new ones have been organized (in the GDR and elsewhere), which provide for training specialists in the areas established on the basis of long-range forecasts for the development of the scientific-technical revolution.
Each country has created its own system of higher education that answers the tasks of the national economy and cultural enlightenment as well as the national characteristics of the state. In Hungary the term of instruction at universities and institutes ranges from four to five years, depending on the type of specialty; as a rule, those graduates who have successfully defended their diploma thesis are awarded the academic degree of doctor of the university.
In Poland there are two types of higher schools: vocational—such as engineering, agricultural, and economics schools—and academic—such as universities and polytechnical and other institutes. The vocational higher schools train specialists primarily for practical work (the term of instruction is from three to four years); the academic higher schools prepare their students for scientific-research and project-design organizations (the term of instruction is from four to 5½ years). Universities and institutes award academic degrees. For example, graduates of polytechnical institutes receive the degree of master of engineering after five to 5½ years of instruction, whereas those who complete higher engineering courses are awarded the title of vocational engineer and are used only directly at plants as technologists or organizers. At the polytechnical institutes there are also streams of study for training vocational engineers. The training ratio of masters of engineering to vocational engineers is 2:3 (by number of graduates). Customarily during the first four or five semesters, and sometimes during the sixth, the students receive instruction in accordance with a uniform plan. Later the students select their specialty; and during their last few semesters, their field of specialization.
In Yugoslavia, in accordance with the law on faculties and universities, adopted in 1960, higher education is divided into three stages. (The first and second stages each have four semesters, and the third extends from two to four semesters.) The first stage provides higher specialized training in a certain narrow area; the second trains specialists for production work as technologists; and the third stage concludes with the awarding of the degree of master of sciences (this master’s diploma is equivalent to the diploma awarded to graduates of a Soviet higher educational institution), which gives the recipient the right to work in a scientific-research, project-design, or similar organization.
At Rumanian higher schools the terms of instruction vary greatly. Thus, the training of engineers of the broad type is carried out within four to five years, and economists, depending on their type, are trained from four to 4l/2 or five years. In universities with specialties such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology the term of instruction is four years; the most capable students, as determined by competition, receive a fifth year of instruction in a narrower field of specialization. The graduates of this fifth year work at scientific institutions and in the most important sectors of the national economy. Three-year pedagogical institutes have been created to train teachers for grades 5-8. In art specialties higher education is carried out in two steps: the first is for all students (four years), while the second is designed for the most talented graduates of the fourth year.
In the GDR, in accordance with the new reform of higher education, the training of specialists (three to five years) consists of three cycles: general scientific training in the first two years (the content of which is established by the Ministry of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education), special training in advanced courses lasting approximately one or two years, and research training in the final semester (the contents of the specialized and scientific-research training is determined by higher educational institutions in conjunction with the enterprise for which the specialists are being trained). The enterprises formulate requirements for the graduates, and the higher educational institutions ensure the preparation of specialists who will answer these requirements. Upon completion of their instruction the most successful students remain at the higher educational institution for scientific research for a period of two to three years; they defend their doctoral dissertations in their respective branches of scholarship (equivalent to the degree of candidate of sciences in the USSR).
In medical specialties (general practice and pediatrics) all the socialist countries have a term of instruction lasting six years; the graduates are awarded the academic degree of doctor of medicine.
The curricula and organization of the educational process at higher schools in each socialist country also have their own particular characteristics. The general trend is to intensify the general-scientific training and to increase the proportion of the students’ independent work. In Polish higher educational institutions students in engineering specialties devote 50-60 percent of their total learning time to general-scientific, general-engineering, and basic specialty courses; 5-10 percent to socioeconomic studies; 15-20 percent to supplementary subjects, such as foreign languages (Russian and one Western European language) and physical education; 5-10 percent to specialized courses; and 5-10 per-cent to practical work experience. Instruction culminates in the diploma thesis and final, graduating examinations (in academic institutions in a master’s essay and master’s examinations). The master’s essays are sometimes connected with the scientific research activity of the departments. At Cuban higher educational institutions the curriculum consists of general-education courses (10 percent in proportion), basic courses in scientific fundamentals (30 percent), basic specialized courses (30 percent), and subjects in professional training (30 percent). Medical students transfer in their fifth year to dormitories at clinics. In the curricula of higher educational institutions in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and certain other countries considerable attention is devoted to elective subjects, and this allows the student to specialize in a narrower field. A great deal of attention is paid to the organic link between theoretical and practical instruction. Evening and correspondence higher education has been developed (in various forms and relations with the daytime system). For example, correspondence higher education has been widely developed in Bulgaria, whereas Poland has concentrated more on evening institutions, as well as training specialists by letting students take examinations without attending lectures. In the GDR, in accordance with the new reform, both evening and correspondence higher education has been introduced for workers who have specialized secondary education and experience in practical work. In the socialist countries much attention is being devoted to postdiploma instruction. In each country the higher educational institutions have organized faculties and courses to increase the qualifications of specialists who are employed in the most important sectors of the national economy.
Great attention is being devoted in the socialist countries to working out the problems of higher education, and to achieve these goals scientific research organizations have been established. For example, in Hungary there is the Scientific Center on Higher Education; in Poland, the Inter-university and Inter-institute Center for Research on Higher Education; in the GDR, centers for programmed instruction attached to the K. Marx University in Leipzig and the Technical University in Dresden.
Higher education is beginning to develop in the countries of Africa and Asia that have attained their independence. The USSR is rendering assistance to many of these countries in the building and equipping of higher educational institutions, in training scientific and teaching personnel and specialists. Such aid has been given, for example, to Algeria, Afghanistan, Burma, Guinea, India, Cambodia, Tunisia, and the Arab Republic of Egypt. With the help of the USSR the following have been built: polytechnical institutes in Conakry (Guinea) and Hanoi (the Democratic Republic of Vietnam), technological institutes in Bombay (India), Rangoon (Burma), and other higher educational institutions. Soviet scholars have taken part in developing curricula and programs, in addition to creating textbooks and teaching manuals for higher educational institutions in the countries of Asia and Africa. In Moscow the Patrice Lumumba Peoples’ Friendship University was established in 1960 in order to train highly qualified specialists from the youth of Asian, African, and Latin American countries.
In its ideological-political content, the scientific nature of its learning, and the social composition of its students, higher education in the USSR and the other socialist countries differs in essence from higher education in the capitalist countries.
In the capitalist countries higher education is, in fact, inaccessible to the broad strata of the working class and is a monopoly of the ruling classes. The students must pay a great deal for their tuition; the percentage of those receiving scholarships is insignificant.
In the USA higher education consists, as a rule, of three stages. For example, at engineering schools the first stage (which usually lasts for four years) culminates with the awarding of the academic degree of bachelor to the graduate. During the first two years of this stage the student studies general-education subjects, regardless of his subsequent specialization; in his last two years the student studies a group of subjects in his chosen major field as well as specialized sections of general-scientific disciplines. All subjects are divided into required and elective. Electives sometimes begin from the very first year. Such a system of education makes it necessary to instruct students according to individual plans during the third and fourth years of instruction. The first stage of instruction usually culminates in a short diploma thesis or a special paper. Instruction in this stage is only theoretical; as a rule, instructional and production practice are not carried out. At certain higher educational institutions there are streams with an extremely small contingent of students whose instruction is carried out according to a “cooperative program,” which, in addition to theoretical and practical training, provides for training in commercial enterprises. In this program the duration of the first stage is five years, sometimes four years and three or four months at the expense of almost completely eliminating vacations. With regard to level of education, a bachelor may be equated with students who have finished four years at a Soviet higher educational institution and passed the state examinations. The second stage of instruction (which lasts about two years) culminates in the awarding of the second academic degree, the master’s degree, which is approximately equivalent to the diploma of a graduate from a Soviet higher educational institution. Those studying at the second stage are called graduate students and are divided into three categories: regular students, or those desiring to complete the entire course and receive the master’s degree; provisional students, or those who do not meet all the requirements to be enrolled in the master’s program but who may fill the gaps in their education and subsequently become regular students; and special students, who do not aspire to receive the master’s degree but who wish to deepen their knowledge in a certain area (from a number of subjects studied).
Everyone enrolled in the master’s program is assigned to a professor-adviser, with whose help an individual study plan is worked out; in addition, the topic of the dissertation (or project) is selected and approved by the department. Not all higher educational institutions require that a master’s dissertation be completed and defended; at some the master’s program is completed by the passing of examinations in the subjects studied. The level of the student’s marks must not fall below “good” (in the terminology of Soviet higher educational institutions). The curricula of the master’s program, as a rule, pursue the goal of the students’ mastery of a narrower specialization than is the case in the training for the bachelor’s degree. All the instruction is directed at raising the theoretical level of education in the chosen specialization and at developing in the students the skills of independent scholarly research. Those who receive the master’s degree most often go to work for research organizations. In certain higher educational institutions of the USA the engineering faculties carry out the training of bachelors and masters in accordance with special curricula. The first three years consist of general engineering training (mathematics, physics, chemistry, graphics, mechanics, economics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, electrical engineering, materials); then the student selects either a one-year plan for obtaining the bachelor’s degree or a two-year plan for acquiring the master’s degree. Only those who have successfully completed the first three years (with a mark of “good” in all courses) are accepted into the two-year master’s program. The third stage of education for those possessing a bachelor’s or a master’s degree is in a business firm, where during the course of one or two years they deepen their special knowledge and study the technology of production as well as certain “secrets” of the firm. This training is of a narrowly specialized character, since it is conducted relative to that position of employment which the specialist will assume after completing his training course. The system of increasing specialist qualifications is being improved; it is frequently regarded as continuing education. Higher evening and correspondence engineering and technical education has not become widespread in the USA. Out of 172 higher engineering schools only 13 (8.7 percent) have the evening form of education. Evening higher education has two forms: studying the complete program in order to obtain an academic degree and studying individual subjects in order to increase one’s qualifications. The curriculum and syllabi are the same as for the daytime form of instruction in the corresponding specialties. The only courses excluded from the curricula of the evening schools are vocational orientation, physical education, and military training. Classes are conducted with the students from two to three times a week, for two hours of lectures each time or three hours of laboratory sessions. According to data from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, only one out of ten students from the evening schools obtains a degree. In order to raise qualifications of those who are employed a number of higher educational institutions have organized evening schools, upon completion of which the graduate does not have the right to claim an academic degree. The correspondence system is organized only for the purpose of studying individual disciplines. Higher educational institutions have established subdivisions for the production of educational supplies, short motion pictures, slides, and so on. There are various institutions that are working out the psychological fundamentals for using technical media of instruction in the educational process. Technical media widely used in this process include television (closed-circuit and regular), sound recordings and video tapes, motion-picture projectors, various teaching and control machines using programmed instruction, and language laboratory facilities.
Great Britain’s system of higher education is composed primarily of the universities. The training of engineering personnel is carried out in colleges and at technical faculties that are part of the universities as well as at independent institutes and colleges. A considerable portion of the students work and study at the same time. All students are divided into those who are attending university courses full-time and those who work during the entire academic year and are therefore taking only some of the courses. Universities have established special divisions for auditing students. Among this category are the “casual students,” who are studying only individual subjects. After three or four years of study students who have successfully passed all the examinations are awarded the academic degree of bachelor in a given branch of science, humanities, law, theology, or medicine. At Oxford University the bachelor of arts or of science degree is awarded following the completion of a brief, specialized paper, which does not possess any essentially scholarly significance. The Imperial College of Science and Technology, which, in the opinion of British scientists, along with Cambridge University, provides the best technical higher education in Britain, has a three-year term of instruction. In the first year the construction, aviation, mechanical, electrical engineering, and chemistry faculties follow standardized curricula and syllabi. Differences in the curricula and syllabi during the second year are insignificant, and this allows the student to transfer from one faculty to another at the end of the second year. In the third year each faculty has about 20 specialized subjects (primarily in new branches of science and technology), from which the student must elect and pass five. During their summer vacation (three months) it is recommended that the students apply their knowledge to practical work. Upon graduating from college they must work for two years in industry within their field of specialization. During this period the college organizes concentrated courses for its graduates, and the major firms conduct a series of lectures (lasting for six weeks) on specialized topics for bachelors of science, with consideration being given to the nature of the work being done by them. After several years of working in responsible positions in industry bachelors of science may be accepted as members into the Society of Engineers. (A member of this society is considered to be a highly qualified engineer and has the right to take part in competitions to fill vacancies in major engineering positions.) Graduates of higher educational institutions are awarded state diplomas certifying the successful completion of a two-year, full-time course of studies and higher state diplomas testifying to the completion of a three-year, full-time course of studies; those completing the three-year correspondence course of studies receive state certificates, and those completing the five-year correspondence course of studies receive higher state certificates. Persons who possess state diplomas and higher state certificates are not obliged to take examinations to join a professional society. The training for the academic degree of master (which is not awarded by all universities) is carried out, as a rule, over a period of two years. For example, Cambridge University awards the master’s degree for conducting research work for two years and for presenting a thesis, whereas Oxford does not grant this degree. In the technical colleges higher education is also carried out by the so-called “sandwich” system, which provides for the alternation of theoretical classes in college with practical work in industry (each period lasting from three to six months), and the entire process is calculated to take from four to five years. Those who graduate from a technical college by means of this system are granted a higher state certificate. The system of correspondence higher education is becoming widespread despite the skeptical attitude toward it by professors, who have put forth a demand for supplementary training in the full-time, day form for a period of from one to two years for graduates of correspondence faculties who wish to obtain an academic degree.
In France the training of highly qualified specialists is carried out at universities and specialized higher educational institutions of various types (higher schools of air navigation, merchant marine schools, higher schools of mining, bridges and roads, and so on). The term of instruction at higher educational institutions lasts from four to six years; as a rule, it is five years. The instruction consists of three cycles. The first (one or two years) is preparatory, or probationary, and ends with examinations on several general-education subjects, depending upon the specialty that has been selected (for example, mathematics, physics, or chemistry). During the second cycle (lasting from three to four years) the student takes examinations for the academic degree of licenciate. (The best students among those who have completed the first cycle are enrolled in the second.) In order to obtain the degree of licenciate, the student, as a rule, takes four examinations, for which he receives corresponding certificates. The subjects included on the examinations are determined by the type of specialty involved. As a rule, the subjects are general theoretical courses with corresponding laboratory sessions. The licentiate degree confers the right to teach at a lycee or college, usually in the provinces. In order to receive the title certified teacher, which enables one to occupy a position as teacher in a college or lycee in a large city, it is necessary to take supplementary examinations for a special certificate, entitled suitability for a teaching position at a secondary educational institution. Those who have graduated from the second cycle of instruction are granted the diploma of general scientific studies. Those who have passed examinations on technical subjects and have undergone practical work in production for at least nine months are awarded the diploma of higher technical studies or an engineering diploma (at higher technical schools). The third cycle is the study of an elected specialty for one or two years at scientific research institutes or at plants where the students then remain to work. In order to complete this cycle, the students from provincial higher educational institutions often go to Paris. The cycle culminates in an examination on the specialty and the defense of the diploma thesis, the preparation for which takes about one year. Those who successfully complete this curriculum are granted the diploma of higher scientific studies, which makes it possible subsequently to receive the diploma of advanced studies in a given specialty, as well as the academic degree of doctor in a specialty or doctor of the third cycle. The doctor’s diploma is approximately equivalent to the diplomas awarded to graduates of Soviet higher educational institutions who have completed a five-year term of instruction and defended their diploma project (thesis) at a high theoretical level.
The countries of Latin America also have a unique system of higher education. For example, in Brazil the training of specialists with higher education is carried out primarily in the universities, which include schools of various types. The University of Sao Paulo combines polytechnical, medical, pharmaceutical, law, agronomy, veterinary, philosophy, and other schools. Each school carries out training in many specialties. For example, in the polytechnical school the specialties are general and naval construction, mechanics, power engineering, chemistry, metallurgy, and mining; in the school of philosophy the specialties include philosophy, mathematics, physics, and philology. Specialization takes place during the third year. In order to train specialists for various branches of science and technology, there are also independent higher educational institutions in various fields. The term of instruction at the universities is usually five years. During the first few years considerable attention is devoted to general science subjects, and the students receive sufficient theoretical preparation. However, the curricula do not provide for production practice, and the engineering majors have no diploma projects. Hence the graduates of these higher educational institutions become specialists with adequate training only after a probationary work period which they sometimes spend in other countries.
In Japan higher education is built upon the basis of the universities and branch institutes (or higher schools). The term of instruction at the universities is four years. During the first two years the students take general scientific courses, and beginning in their third year they specialize in some field. Those who successfully pass the examinations for the entire four-year sequence will receive the bachelor’s degree. Students having a bachelor’s degree may receive a master’s degree after two years of further instruction. The higher educational institutions have evening divisions, at which less than 20 percent receive instruction, as compared with the contingent of students enrolled in the daytime divisions. More than 50 percent of the students major in the humanities. There is tuition at higher educational institutions; it is very high, and no more than 20 percent of the students receive scholarships.
Since the 1950’s and 1960’s all countries have begun to devote greater attention to the problems of higher education. In 1960 the Eleventh Session of the General Conference of UNESCO adopted a convention on the struggle against discrimination in the field of education. At the suggestion of the USSR, UNESCO, together with a number of other international organizations (such as the International Association of Universities and the International Association of Professors and Lecturers), has been conducting a great deal of work in establishing an equivalency standard for certificates, diplomas, and academic degrees on an international level. In 1963, by a resolution of the Twelfth Session of the General Conference of UNESCO, the International Institute for Educational Planning was created in Paris. Since 1966 annual conferences have been held by the ministers of higher and secondary specialized education of the socialist countries to discuss the most important problems of higher education. In 1967 a conference was held in Vienna by the ministers of higher education of the European countries on the problems of the democratization of higher education. In connection with the developing scientific and technical revolution, many countries have been working out reforms in higher education, and some have implemented them.
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A. I. BOGOMOLOV [5-1647-2; updated]