Histochemistry

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histochemistry

[¦hi·stō′kem·ə·strē]
(biochemistry)
A science that deals with the distribution and activities of chemical components in tissues.

Histochemistry

 

the division of histology that studies the chemical properties of animal and plant tissue.

Histochemistry seeks to elucidate the characteristics of metabolism in tissue cells and interstitial media. It studies changes in cell properties in the process of development and the connection between the work, metabolism, and renewal of mature cells and tissues. A basic principle of histochemical methodology is the bonding of a definite chemical component of cells with a stain or the formation of a stain in the process of the reaction. A number of methods (cytophotometry and luminescence and interference microscopy) are based on the physical properties of substances. Various histochemical methods determine the localization and quantity of many substances in tissue and their metabolism (tissue autoradiography), bonds with submicroscopic structure (electron histochemistry), and enzyme activity. Immunohistochemistry is a promising trend. The most precise histochemical methods, which permit investigation of cell structure, are called cytochemical methods.

The first special histochemical research was done by the French scientist F. Raspail (1825-34). Histochemistry began to develop intensively beginning in the 1940’s, when reliable methods appeared for determining proteins, nucleic acids, lipides, polysaccharides, and certain inorganic components in the cell. By means of histochemical methodology it has been possible, for instance, to show for the first time the connection of changes in the quantity of RNA with the synthesis of protein and the constancy of DNA content in the chromosome bank.

REFERENCES

Pearse, E. Gistokhimiia: Teoreticheskaia i prikladnaia. Moscow, 1962. (Translated from English.)
Burstone, M. Gistokhimiia fermentov. Moscow, 1965. (Translated from English.)

V. IA. BRODSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
It is not advisable that histochemically reduced SDH activity should be reported without a quantitative analysis as a follow-up.
A recent example is the association of histochemically increased SDH and cytochrome c oxidase activities in muscle of individuals with an exercise intolerance disorder caused by the accumulation of somatic mutations in the mitochondrial DNA-encoded cytochrome b gene.
In the current study, the temporal patterns of lipid and carbohydrate content evaluated histochemically in gonad sections of the experimental organisms clearly matched the observed changes in oocyte diameter and maturation stage of females, suggesting that both Alcian blue and Sudan black can be used effectively to identify the relative increase or decrease of energy reserves throughout the process of gametogenesis and spawning of Panopea globosa.
3) Mucin can be demonstrated histochemically with stains such as periodic acid-- Schiff, mucicarmine, or high iron diamine and Alcian blue, and it is regarded as a hallmark of ductal differentiation in the pancreas (Figure 1, A).
Only the two cell types with acidophilic granules in the hypobranchial gland showed histochemically strong positive reactions for tryptophan, indicating in these cells high concentrations of the precursors for "Tyrian Purple.
Proanthocyanidins are less frequently found but have been identified histochemically in long files of cells next to the vascular system in Lotus roots (Morris & Robbins, 1992) and in the cortex of nodules of woody and some herbaceous forms (Brown & Walsh, 1994).
Interestingly, the deposits were histochemically composed of [lambda] protein, as in the present case.
Immunohistochemically and histochemically, LCs are positive for S100, CD1a, peanut agglutinin lectin, and adenosine triphosphatase.
Histochemically, the tumor cells were negative for mucin stains (Alcian blue, mucicarmine, and periodic acid-Schiff).
Histochemically, cartilage sites of positive staining with cationic dyes (toluidine blue and Alcian blue) and of staining for vic-glycolic groups (silver-nitrate-methenamine and periodic acid-Schiff) were limited to the matrix capsules around chondrocytes.
Histochemically, neoplastic cells contained glycogen in 26 cases and intratubular, PAS-positive, diastase-resistant material in 20 cases.
Fluidlike eosinophilic to occasionally basophilic secretions were less common, seen in 15% of cases as the predominant form of secretions, and in contrast to dense platelike secretions are histochemically acid mucopolysaccharide in nature (positive for Alcian blue [pH 2.