histocompatibility


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Related to histocompatibility: histocompatibility complex, Histocompatibility antigens, Histocompatibility testing

histocompatibility:

see transplantation, medicaltransplantation, medical,
surgical procedure by which a tissue or organ is removed and replaced by a corresponding part, usually from another part of the body or from another individual.
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Histocompatibility

A term used to describe the genes that influence acceptance or rejection of grafts. When grafts of tissue are exchanged between genetically dissimilar individuals, profound immunological rejection generally takes place. In contrast, grafts between genetically similar individuals, such as identical twins, are normally tolerated; they are histocompatible. Most known examples of histocompatibility (or H) genes encode polymorphic (that is, tending to differ between individuals) cell-surface proteins.

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains a set of histocompatibility genes, termed major because mismatching at these genes invokes rapid rejection. The main function of MHC genes involves distinguishing self from nonself in the immune system, as part of preventing the spread of infectious disease. The body employs special mechanisms to avoid rejection of the fetus, which is effectively an allograft, that is, a graft from a donor to a genetically dissimilar recipient of the same species; in this case, the mechanisms include a diminution of MHC gene expression.

The MHC contains a spectrum of genes, many of which influence processing and presentation of antigens to the immune system. In mice, the MHC is designated the H-2 complex; in humans, it is referred to as the HLA complex (for human leukocyte A system). Mice and other mammals seem to have a similar arrangement of genes in their MHCs. See Antigen, Cellular immunology, Mendelism, Transplantation biology

histocompatibility

[¦hi·stō·kəm′pad·ə′bil·əd·ē]
(immunology)
The capacity to accept or reject a tissue graft.
References in periodicals archive ?
The American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics is a professional society dedicated to advancing the science and practice of immunogenetics and its impact on the quality of human life.
Testing is focused on donor eligibility determination and final product safety; infectious disease testing, microbiology, histocompatibility and environmental monitoring.
The composition of matter patent (United States Patent 5,734,023) affords fundamental protection for the company's unique approach to the binding of key disease-specific proteins or peptides to a subunit of the disease-associated major histocompatibility complex (MHC's class II).
The way by which certain strains of rats are susceptible or resistant to EAE is in part through the presence and action of certain "major histocompatibility complex" (MHC) genes.
These drugs are created by utilizing Altor's integrated proprietary technologies for soluble T cell receptor (STAR-TM) and major histocompatibility complex molecules.
Package 2 test kits, enzyme Taq polymerase, reagents, calibrators, consumables, software and instrumentation needed for testing histocompatibility complex HLA -A *, B *, C *, DRB1 *, DQA1 * / DQB1 * DPB1 * and anti-HLA using the fluorescence analyzer held laser Luminex 200.
The topics include physical and comparative maps, unexpected structural features of the equine major histocompatibility complex, coat color genomics, genomics of skeletal disorders, molecular genetic testing and karyotyping in the horse, genomics of the circadian clock, and clues in the mitochondrial genome about the evolution of extant equids and the genomic diversity of horse breeds.
Ed; Histocompatibility Representative-John Gerlach, PhD, D(ABHI); ASHI; Immunohematology and Serology Laboratory, Michigan State University; OPO Representative-Susan A.
Professor Maria da Graca Bicalho, head of the Immunogenetics and Histocompatibility Laboratory at the University of Parana, has said that people with diverse major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) were more likely to choose each other as mates than those whose MHCs were similar.
Zinkernagel, the Swiss immunologist who won for helping to discover the restriction of major histocompatibility complex antigens, this book presents 305 black and white photographic portraits of Nobel Prize winners in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, economics, peace, and literature.
Carol Pancoska, a leading figure in the field of immunology, histocompatibility and immunogenetics, to its team of Laboratory Directors.
Researchers have long known that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a collection of immune system molecules that distinguishes tissues as self or nonself, plays an important role in mate choice.