Histomoniasis


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Related to Histomoniasis: Blackhead disease, Histomonas meleagridis

Histomoniasis

 

a parasitic disease of turkey chicks and less frequently of chickens, characterized by purulent inflammation of one or both ceca and affection of the liver. The disease is caused by protozoans—histomonads (Histomonas meleagridis). It is ubiquitous.

Mass infection of the young occurs when they are kept together with adult fowl, whose feces often contain ova of helminths of the genus Heterakis, which are infested with histomonads. Histomoniasis is fostered by crowding the chicks, disruption of their heat and light conditions, poor feeding, dampness, and poor cleaning. Usually, on the second to fourth day infected chicks develop foul-smelling diarrhea. In many, the skin of the head darkens (hence the English name of the disease—blackhead). The turkey chicks die within one to three weeks. Diagnosis is based on clinical and epizootological data and the results of laboratory tests. Furazolidone, osarsol, enteroseptol, antibiotics, and other preparations are used in treatment. Recommended preventive measures include raising chicks on screened or latticed floors and isolating them from adult fowl.

REFERENCE

Bolezni ptits. [Compiled by F. M. Orlov.] Moscow, 1962. Pages 148-58.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The economic significance of histomoniasis is difficult to ascertain, but annual losses from mortality in turkeys has been estimated to exceed two million dollars in the United States (McDougald, 1997).
The FDA withdrew marketing approvals for roxarsone and for two other arsenic-based feed additives in 2013, and they withdrew approval for nitarsone, which is used to prevent histomoniasis in turkeys, in December of 2015 (FDA 2014b, 2015; Abraham et al.
Blackhead, or histomoniasis, is caused by a microscopic parasite which attacks the birds' livers.
The Maryland ban exempts Histostat[R] (nitarsone), another Alpharma arsenical for use in poultry, which is the only FDA-approved treatment for histomoniasis, a potentially lethal illness.
Gross and microscopic lesions were observed on days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 post infection to evaluate any clinical histomoniasis in ducks and to appraise the histomonad's carriage.