Histones


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Histones

 

a group of proteins weakly exhibiting the characteristics of bases. Histones are classified as simple proteins. They are contained in the nuclei of the majority of cells in animals. The proteins of erythrocytes and the thymus gland are particularly rich in histones. The alkaline properties of histones result from the presence of the basic amino acids—histidine, lysine, and arginine. Unlike the majority of proteins, histones contain almost no tryptophan. The molecular weight of histones ranges from 5,000 to 37,000. In the cell nuclei (particularly in the chromosomes), histones form a complex with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)—nucleohistone. It is thought that the joining of histones to DNA and their breaking away regulates the synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and hence the biosynthesis of proteins.

REFERENCE

Gistony i perenos geneticheskoi informatsii. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from English.)

E. V. PETUSHKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Instead, they found, in quiescent satellite cells taken from the younger mice, copious instances in which histones in the vicinity of genes ordinarily reserved for other tissues were marked with both "stop" and "go" signals, just as genes associated with development to mature-muscle status were.
Ethanol causes epigenetic alterations in these cells that could result in changes in expression of genes associated with modified histones, including genes coding for various cytokines.
Conceptually, we could use the modification, which is the methylation of adenosine residue, as a 'code' in mRNA to target histone modifications to turn gene on or off," Zhao said.
Independent evolution of histone proteins and their prominent sequence variation in ciliates as compared to other animals have made them potential candidate for cross check analysis.
Histone carbonyl assays were performed as described by Thompson and Burcham (2008), using 15 [micro]g of acid-extracted total histones as substrates.
Epigenetics, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are typically referred to as mitotically heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve any changes in DNA sequences [14].
Linking DNA methylation and histone modification: patterns and paradigms.
4-6) Alterations in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNA expression (7,8) can change gene expression without changing the DNA sequence.
Pathophysiological response to hypoxia--from the molecular mechanisms of malady to drug discovery: epigenetic regulation of the hypoxic response via hypoxia-inducible factor and histone modifying enzymes.
The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the main plant hormones signal transduction pathways, to present plant histones in comparison to their animal counterparts and to discuss the evidence accumulated during the last few years concerning the effect of plant hormone signaling on chromatin structure and function and also the influence of distinct chromatin patterns on plant hormone responses.
5 Styela monterevensis (3) P type P all R Loligo opalescens (squid) (4) (a) HI-like proteins can be extracted separately with 5% perchloric acid, histones (including HI) can be extracted with 35% acetic acid, and proteins with a higher R/K ratio need to be extracted with stronger acids (0.

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