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Of these, 44 are known as autosomes and consist of matched pairs of chromosomes, known as homologous chromosomes.
This demonstration further reinforces the idea that the synapse of homologous chromosomes is a hallmark of meiosis because the bi-orientation of nonsister kinetochores (two kinetochores from homologous chromosomes) results in the physical separation of the homologous chromosomes (Luo, 2009).
Further, it has recently been shown that the homologous chromosome arms of Hordeum marinum Hudson carrying rDNA segments have a lower chiasma frequency than all other chromosome arms (I.
The DNA chromosomes within each molecule are composed of two separate polynucleotide strands, each arranged with 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes.
After pachytene, bivalents have no chiasma; homologous chromosomes lie parallel to each other, and condense gradually during prophase I and metaphase I.
In pre-reductional meiosis, which is the more common type, homologous chromosomes segregate in the first round of meiosis, and sister chromatids segregate in the second.
5q32 1 14q31 1 2q21 * 6q22 1 15q12 1 9q12 * 6q24 2 16q14 1 10q14 * 8q22 1 18q12 1 8q24 1 19q14 1 9q12 3 Xq17 1 9q22 1 Xq22 1 10q12 2 Xq24 1 10q14 4 Bold Italics indicate homologous chromosomes.
In the process of biological evolution, two homologous chromosomes are intermixed to generate newer chromosome patterns that produce new individuals or species.