Of these, 44 are known as autosomes and consist of matched pairs of chromosomes, known as homologous chromosomes
This demonstration further reinforces the idea that the synapse of homologous chromosomes
is a hallmark of meiosis because the bi-orientation of nonsister kinetochores (two kinetochores from homologous chromosomes
) results in the physical separation of the homologous chromosomes
Further, it has recently been shown that the homologous chromosome
arms of Hordeum marinum Hudson carrying rDNA segments have a lower chiasma frequency than all other chromosome arms (I.
The DNA chromosomes within each molecule are composed of two separate polynucleotide strands, each arranged with 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes
After pachytene, bivalents have no chiasma; homologous chromosomes
lie parallel to each other, and condense gradually during prophase I and metaphase I.
In pre-reductional meiosis, which is the more common type, homologous chromosomes
segregate in the first round of meiosis, and sister chromatids segregate in the second.
5q32 1 14q31 1 2q21 * 6q22 1 15q12 1 9q12 * 6q24 2 16q14 1 10q14 * 8q22 1 18q12 1 8q24 1 19q14 1 9q12 3 Xq17 1 9q22 1 Xq22 1 10q12 2 Xq24 1 10q14 4 Bold Italics indicate homologous chromosomes
In the process of biological evolution, two homologous chromosomes
are intermixed to generate newer chromosome patterns that produce new individuals or species.