These findings indicate that primary spermatocytes in the hinny could enter into synapsis but because of the failure of homologous chromosomes
to pair (Henry et al.
When there is Hardy-Weinberg Disequilibrium the marker alleles and haplotypes are not independent of each other so the effects of disease predisposing alleles and haplotypes may be 'masked' by other non-disease predisposing alleles and haplotypes  or, in the case of a recessive condition, by the presence of a dominant allele on the homologous chromosome
the traits localized in a chromosome can go independently of each other into one or the other daughter cell which would point to an exchange of parts between homologous chromosomes
The ideogram was drawing on the basis of the averaged length of each homologous chromosome
pair (p) and their centromeric position.
Despite our initial hypothesis, we show that bindin is located on two sets of homologous chromosomes
and that neither of these is the heteromorphic pair.
are chromosomes with genes that control the same function and that are at the same location (or locus).
During anaphase 1, homologous chromosomes
move in opposite directions along the spindle.
Thus, the expression of each trait is controlled by two genetic messages; two homologous chromosomes
control one gene from each trait.
Variants of a single gene that occupy the same locus on the two homologous chromosomes
are known as an allele.
In the process of biological evolution, two homologous chromosomes
are intermixed to generate newer chromosome patterns that produce new individuals or species.
Thus, alleles on chromosomes 16, 18, 22sh, and 22Lo from 3-79 contribute greater additive effects for lint percentage than alleles on the homologous chromosomes
in TM-1 (Table 7).
Although many types of aberrations are found, the more commonly observed are deletion (loss of a small segment of a chromosome usually in only one homologue) leading to loss of information, translocation (a segment of one of the two homologous chromosomes
breaks and binds to the other), duplication (occurrence of the same sectors twice on the same chromosome), inversion (a particular sector is reversed in the chromosome), insertion (a new sector is inserted into the chromosome) and substitution (a certain chromosome sector is replaced with another).