hookworm


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hookworm,

any of a number of bloodsucking nematodes in the phylum NematodaNematoda
, phylum consisting of about 12,000 known species, and many more predicted species, of worms (commonly known as roundworms or threadworms). Nematodes live in the soil and other terrestrial habitats as well as in freshwater and marine environments; some live on the deep
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, order Strongiloidae that live as parasites in humans and other mammals and attach themselves to the host's intestines by means of hooks. Hookworm infection in humans is caused by infestation with Ancylostoma duodenale (the European species) or with Necator americanus (the American species). It is found in tropical and subtropical climates, especially where the inhabitants do not wear shoes or stockings and where the soil is contaminated by human excrement. The larva of the hookworm, living in moist soil or mud, easily penetrates the exposed skin, usually the sole of the foot, and is then carried by the blood to the lungs. An early sign of hookworm infestation is a dermatitis at the site of entry, known as ground itch. As the larva passes through the lungs, it causes episodes of coughing with bloody sputum. Raised with the mucus into the mouth, the larva is then swallowed. It may also be swallowed with polluted drinking water or with unclean vegetables eaten raw. By means of its hooks the larva attaches itself to the upper portion of the small intestine, where it nourishes itself on the blood of its host. The larva matures and the female produces eggs, as many as 30,000 per day, that are passed from the intestine with the feces, usually to contaminate the soil still further. The drain on the blood of the host results in anemia. This, together with the resulting abdominal pain and diarrhea, causes general debility. Hookworm is treated with drugs, notably tetrachloroethylene, that loosen and destroy the parasite, as well as with specifics for the anemia and abdominal symptoms. Incidence of this disease, which was once seriously prevalent, has been much reduced by improved sanitation and the wearing of shoes.

hookworm

[′hu̇k‚wərm]
(invertebrate zoology)
The common name for parasitic roundworms composing the family Ancylostomidae.

hookworm

any parasitic blood-sucking nematode worm of the family Ancylostomatidae, esp Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus, both of which cause disease. They have hooked mouthparts and enter their hosts by boring through the skin
References in periodicals archive ?
Testing was conducted at the University of Melbourne because this institution has the technical expertise for identifying hookworm.
Although a drug exists to treat infection, hookworm infection is so common in parts of the world that it is thought to have a negative effect on economies.
Eggs of unidentified hookworms were occasionally reported from dogs at Camp Zama but not other veterinary clinics.
Several studies have also confirmed a significant association between wealth index and hookworm infection.
Hotez disclosed that he has a patent on a hookworm vaccine, but no relationships with pharmaceutical companies.
Hookworm showed six heavy and six moderate infections whereas Trichuris had only one heavy and five moderate infections.
Caregivers were notified of their child's results by post in the form of typed letters in English and Tshivenda that detailed the child's haemoglobin level and hookworm status.
And finally, in the midst of the eugenics movement, the hookworm campaign arose to complicate the argument about degenerate whites.
Another example of an irrelevant question was one in which the audience was asked to identify which of four micrographs showed a hookworm egg, which also was not answered in the DVD.
Ascaris, Strongyloides and hookworm on the other hand have a larval stage that, after penetration of skin or mucous membranes, travels through the bloodstream to the lungs and migrates up the tracheobronchial tree, where they are swallowed and take up residence as adult worms in the gastrointestinal tract.
Isospora belli oocysts and hookworm ova were identified by their characteristic microscopic morphology following standard methods (2).