hookworm


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hookworm,

any of a number of bloodsucking nematodes in the phylum NematodaNematoda
, phylum consisting of about 12,000 known species, and many more predicted species, of worms (commonly known as roundworms or threadworms). Nematodes live in the soil and other terrestrial habitats as well as in freshwater and marine environments; some live on the deep
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, order Strongiloidae that live as parasites in humans and other mammals and attach themselves to the host's intestines by means of hooks. Hookworm infection in humans is caused by infestation with Ancylostoma duodenale (the European species) or with Necator americanus (the American species). It is found in tropical and subtropical climates, especially where the inhabitants do not wear shoes or stockings and where the soil is contaminated by human excrement. The larva of the hookworm, living in moist soil or mud, easily penetrates the exposed skin, usually the sole of the foot, and is then carried by the blood to the lungs. An early sign of hookworm infestation is a dermatitis at the site of entry, known as ground itch. As the larva passes through the lungs, it causes episodes of coughing with bloody sputum. Raised with the mucus into the mouth, the larva is then swallowed. It may also be swallowed with polluted drinking water or with unclean vegetables eaten raw. By means of its hooks the larva attaches itself to the upper portion of the small intestine, where it nourishes itself on the blood of its host. The larva matures and the female produces eggs, as many as 30,000 per day, that are passed from the intestine with the feces, usually to contaminate the soil still further. The drain on the blood of the host results in anemia. This, together with the resulting abdominal pain and diarrhea, causes general debility. Hookworm is treated with drugs, notably tetrachloroethylene, that loosen and destroy the parasite, as well as with specifics for the anemia and abdominal symptoms. Incidence of this disease, which was once seriously prevalent, has been much reduced by improved sanitation and the wearing of shoes.

hookworm

[′hu̇k‚wərm]
(invertebrate zoology)
The common name for parasitic roundworms composing the family Ancylostomidae.

hookworm

any parasitic blood-sucking nematode worm of the family Ancylostomatidae, esp Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus, both of which cause disease. They have hooked mouthparts and enter their hosts by boring through the skin
References in periodicals archive ?
Hotez PJ, Ghosh K, Hawdon JM, Narasimhan S, Jones B, Xiao SH, et alExperimental approaches to the development of a recombinant hookworm vaccine.
Hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) is experiencing a resurgence in Georgia and Kentucky.
A major drawback to EIA evaluation for infection is that specificity is compromised when cross-reactive antibodies are present from other helminth infections like hookworm infection, filariasis, Ascaris lumbricoides infection, and acute schistosomiasis.
In addition, pregnant women and children are at risk for complications from hookworm anemia.
Key Words: malaria, pellagra, hookworm, southern stereotypes
Unlike tapeworms, the hookworm has a mouth ringed with dagger-like teeth and digs into the intestinal lining for food.
trichiura, or hookworm, it is estimated that several million suffer serious effects.
Puppies will continuously shed roundworm and hookworm larvae in their feces, and then enthusiastically reinfect themselves by digging or playing on the same ground where they defecate.
The parasites considered in the model were Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and Strongyloides stercoralis.
Between driver ants, drought, hookworm, hunger, torrential rains, and deadly green mamba snakes, the women experience one hell after another.