The crop physiological disruptions are expressed as hopperburn symptoms on the leaves (Kabrick & Bacus 1990; Eacle & Backus 1994).
Average number of adults, nymphs, and hopperburn rates were separated using Tukey's HSD test at 5% level.
Similarly, ANOVA detected a significant difference among cultivar entries in hopperburn rates (Table 1).
Gepak Ijo' could host larger numbers of leafhoppers while sustaining lower hopperburn damage and yield loss, suggesting that the cultivar may react as tolerant to the leafhopper infestation.
Gepak Kuning', 'Gepak Ijo', 'Tidar', and 'Kaba' had smaller leafhopper populations and sustained less hopperburn damage than the other cultivars studied.
Other topics include the nature of the feeding stimuli in hopperburn
initiation, fecal residues of veterinary parasiticides, egg dumping in insects, the ecology of interactions between weeds and arthropods, and the natural history of plague.