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see artilleryartillery,
originally meant any large weaponry (including such ancient engines of war as catapults and battering rams) or war material, but later applied only to heavy firearms as opposed to small arms.
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a type of artillery gun for directing plunging fire at covered targets. Howitzers are part of troop artillery (field artillery in foreign armies). They have a caliber of 100 mm or more, a relatively short barrel (from 15 to 30 calibers), a multisection charge, a range of fire of up to 17 km, and a relatively high rate of fire—a round every other minute or every minute to six rounds per minute depending on the caliber. Most modern howitzers are self-propelled; the old systems use mechanical traction.

The first howitzers were built in Europe in the 15th century (Italy and Germany) and were used for firing stone-filled canisters. In the second half of the 16th century howitzers began firing explosive shells. In Russia the first howitzers were built in the middle of the 16th century. They were called gakovnitsy, gaufnitsy, and gafunitsy. In the 1760’s Russia developed longer howitzers, which were named unicorns. The change from smoothbore to rifled guns in the 1860’s led to the building of rifled howitzers. The greater use of field fortifications in the wars in the second half of the 19th century increased the need for howitzers. They were widely used in all armies in the two world wars. During the Great Patriotic War (1941-45) the highest performance indexes were displayed by the Soviet 122-, 152-, and 203-mm howitzers.


Kirillov-Gubetskoi, I. M. Sovremennaia artilleriia, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1933.
Istoriia otechestvennoi artillerii, vol. 1, books 1-3; vol. 2, book 4; vol. 3, books 7-8. Moscow-Leningrad, 1959-66.



A complete projectile-firing weapon with a bore diameter greater than 30 millimeters, and a length shorter than a gun of the same caliber; maximum angle of velocity is about 65°; used to deliver curved fire with projectiles of lower muzzle velocities than those from the gun.
References in periodicals archive ?
The platform can transfer twelve rounds-per-minute to the K-9155mm self-propelled howitzer.
BAE Systems is partnering with Indian private sector defense company Mahindra Defence Systems for the assembly of 120 ultralight howitzers, while the remaining 25 guns will be supplied within the next three years.
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Despite the lack of necessary documents, Maningding said Iriberri and the others allowed the entry into the country of the howitzer ammunition through the Port of Subic in Zambales.
The M198 Howitzers will be of the most use to the Army.
He continued working from home, continued from home, continued searching for the next searching for the next howitzer, and continued howitzer, and continued guiding his team with guiding his team with INSIGHT and integrity.
In many ways this is a more potent "air mobile artillery" platform than the Chinook helicopter on which the ultra light howitzer would have to depend for mobility.
Abu Dhabi The orderbook of UK-based BAE Systems, a global defence, security and aerospace company, for lightweight 155mm howitzers is about $1.
Though Ellis was not involved with the first use of direct assault fire, sometimes the 8-inch howitzer came under his unit's supervision.
Canada has a potential requirement for an additional 25 howitzers.
The M777 is the first ground-combat system to make extensive use of titanium in its major structures to trim weight; the howitzer is 7,000 pounds lighter than the M198 weapon it replaces.