hunger strike

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hunger strike,

refusal to eat as a protest against existing conditions. Although most often used by prisoners, others have also employed it. For example, Mohandas GandhiGandhi, Mohandas Karamchand
, 1869–1948, Indian political and spiritual leader, b. Porbandar. In South Africa

Educated in India and in London, he was admitted to the English bar in 1889 and practiced law unsuccessfully in India for two years.
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 in India and Cesar ChavezChavez, Cesar Estrada
, 1927–93, American agrarian labor leader, b. near Yuma, Ariz. A migrant worker, he became involved (1952) in the self-help Community Service Organization (CSO) in California, working among Mexicans and Mexican Americans; from 1958 to 1962 he was its
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 in California fasted as religious penance during otherwise political or economic disputes. An ancient device, the hunger strike was revived in England in the early 20th cent. by militant woman suffragists and became the accepted technique of those sentenced for suffragist activities. The passage of the so-called Cat-and-Mouse Act in 1913, by which the prisoners in ill health due to fasting could be temporarily discharged, ended the forced feeding to which the authorities had resorted. The Franchise Act of 1918 ended the suffragist hunger strikes in England. The hunger strike was used by Irish nationalists in 1912 and again later on. Hunger strikes were used by members of Sinn FéinSinn Féin
[Irish,=we, ourselves], Irish nationalist movement. It had its roots in the Irish cultural revival at the end of the 19th cent. and the growing nationalist disenchantment with the constitutional Home Rule movement.
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 in 1920, and Terence MacSwiney, lord mayor of Cork, died in a London prison after a fast of 74 days. Thereafter, hunger striking was forbidden by the Sinn Féin. It was used again in the 1970s and 1980s by imprisoned members of the Irish Republican ArmyIrish Republican Army
(IRA), nationalist organization devoted to the integration of Ireland as a complete and independent unit. Organized by Michael Collins from remnants of rebel units dispersed after the Easter Rebellion in 1916 (see Ireland), it was composed of the more
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. Hunger striking was used between 1917 and 1919 by American woman suffragists and also by conscientious objectors imprisoned in the United States. During the Vietnam War, the Roman Catholic priests Daniel and Philip BerriganBerrigan brothers
, American Catholic priests, writers, and social activists. Daniel Berrigan, 1921–2016, b. Syracuse, N.Y., was ordained in the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 1952.
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 used the hunger strike in 1969 at Danbury Prison, Conn., where they had been imprisoned for destroying draft records. In 1970 inmates in California's Soledad Prison used it on a massive scale to protest prison conditions. and in 2000–2001 several hundred leftist inmates in Turkish prisons and others in Turkey used "death fasts" to protest prison conditions. Alleged TalibanTaliban
or Taleban
, Islamic fundamentalist militia of Afghanistan and later Pakistan, originally consisting mainly of Sunni Pashtun religious students from Afghanistan who were educated and trained in Pakistan.
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 and Al QaedaAl Qaeda
or Al Qaida
[Arab.,=the base], Sunni Islamic terrorist organization with the stated goals of uniting all Muslims and establishing a transnational, strict-fundamentalist Islamic state.
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 members held at Guantánamo Bay by the United States since 2002 have also used hunger strikes to protest their imprisonment there.
References in periodicals archive ?
The strange link between an Irish hunger striker and a Tehran fast-food outlet can be explained through Iran's post-revolutionary government's historic ties with Sands' death.
Almost all of the hunger strikers are suffering from sleep disturbance, headache and dizziness, blurred vision, urinary frequencies, loss of hearing, muscle, bone and joint pains, lack of concentration and memory loss.
10 of those hunger strikers died, while 13 others survived, including one man that fasted for 70 days.
But Hunger striker Gordon McNeill yesterday denied the protest had ended.
Livingstone entertained the family of hunger striker Thomas McElwee.
Soltan's family visited the hunger striker on Thursday in a Manial hospital's intensive care unit to find him handcuffed to the hospital bed.
However, he was blasted by the DUP yesterday for failing to condemn his Newry Council colleagues for voting along with Sinn Fein to name the playground after hunger striker Raymond McCreesh.
Sabah's Mahmut EuvE-r concentrates on independent Kurdish deputy Leyla Zana's decision to join the hunger striker and thinks Zana's participation in the strike presents an opportunity for the prevention of deaths.
The best known hunger striker, Bobby Sands, was jailed for the bomb ing of a Belfast furniture factory, a military target if ever there was one
DESPERATION: Iranian hunger striker Mokhtar Heydary, who with Faroq Haidari and Fariborz Gravandi, above left, has staged the protest to draw attention to their plight
Huerta, who is not a hunger striker, said the ordinance signed Thursday means ``at this point the only people whose needs are being met are rich people in West L.
The Cairo Court has postponed hunger striker Mohamed Soltan's trial, commonly known as the Rabaa Operations trial, to 11 October