Bank filtration is a natural water treatment process that induces surface water to flow in response to a hydraulic gradient
through sediment and into a vertical or horizontal well.
Groundwater flowing though soil exerts a destabilizing force on the soil that is proportional to the hydraulic gradient
, which can lead to what has been termed "pop-out" streambank failures.
In the present study, laboratory investigations have been carried out to evaluate the proportionality of flux to hydraulic gradient
Transmmissivity is widely employed in groundwater hydraulics; it is known to be the rate at which water of a prevailing kinematics viscosity is transmitted through a unit width of aquifer under a unit hydraulic gradient
WhereQ is the water discharge, K is the hydraulic conductivity of the soil (soil permeability), A isthe cross sectional flow area and i is the hydraulic gradient
which is given by the following equation:
It was determined that in the course filtration at higher hydraulic gradients
, clay mineral particles re-orientate parallel to the water flow lines, and, with the hydraulic gradient
dropping down, clay particles do not return to the initial position.
One of the interesting aspects of this is that the viscosity of the crude oil is always changing, so you end up with some really weird curves on the hydraulic gradient
," Shauers said.
where V = ground water velocity (L/T), K = saturated hydraulic conductivity (L/T), dh/dL = hydraulic gradient
(L/L) or change in hydraulic pressure head (h) over distance (L), and time = (T).
Knowledge of the relationship between velocity and hydraulic gradient
is required for engineering design of rock fill structures subjected to cross flow.
A salient feature of such contamination is its long-term nature: the chemical penetrate gradually into the ground water zone from points of surface or subsurface disposal, are transported very slowly in the direction of the hydraulic gradient
, and persist in many instances for extremely long time periods.
It was assumed that, for vertical flow, the finite differencing scheme would provide a good approximation for the hydraulic gradient
above the interface.
The vertical water flow through the macropores is calculated by the Darcy's equation assuming a unit hydraulic gradient
(laminar flow under gravity, i.