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(hī'drəsĕf`ələs), also known as water on the brain, developmental (congenital) or acquired condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of body fluids within the skull. The congenital form may be associated with other abnormalities. The acquired form may follow meningitis or another cerebral inflammation or tumor. The accumulation of fluid causes compression of the brain and enlargement of the skull, sometimes with separation of bone structures. Paralysis and death may result or, at the least, mental retardation. Many forms of therapy, including surgery, have been attempted, but usually without much success in extreme cases.



edema of the brain, an excessive increase in the amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the cranial cavity.

The cause of hydrocephalus is either excessive production of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain or obstruction of its efflux from the ventricles of the brain, as a result of inflammatory processes, tumors, or other diseases leading to closing of the apertures through which the fluid escapes from the ventricles. Congenital hydrocephalus is caused by congenital syphilis and toxoplasmosis; acquired hydrocephalus originates (usually in early childhood) after meningitides, menin-goencephalitides, head traumas, intoxications, and other afflictions. The most common symptom of hydrocephalus in children is an enlarged skull. In places where the bones of the skull did not knit normally, rounded, pulsating protrusions may form. Frequently there is strabismus and nystagmus. Sometimes a reduction of vision and hearing, headaches, and nausea are observed. Intelligence is diminished. Treatment of hydrocephalus calls for the removal of the cause, sometimes by surgery. It can be prevented by the elimination of conditions injurious to the mother during pregnancy and the prevention of neuroinfections during childhood.


Arendt, A. A. Gidrotsefaliia i ee khirurgicheskoe lechenie. Moscow,1948.



, hydrocephaly
accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain because its normal outlet has been blocked by congenital malformation or disease. In infancy it usually results in great enlargement of the head
References in periodicals archive ?
The increased intracranial pressure in hydrocephalic conditions drives flow from the ventricles to the parenchyma, leading to interstitial edema, especially in subventricular white matter.
So far, 117 machines have been delivered to hydrocephalic patients.
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Knowled- Disabili- ntellectual impairment ge ty types * Cerebral palsy (CP) * Sensory deficits (deaf or blind) * Epilepsy * Hydrocephalic * Micro-cephalic * Physical appearance, e.
Throughout this volume, the text is accompanied by computer visuals by Andi Olsen--a hydrocephalic baby with Cindy Crawford superimposed on its cranium, a TV-headed family from the 1950s, an X-rayed fetus--that complement the brutal critique of popular culture and its relation to the body that pervades the fictions.
This was just one of the issues with which the Indiana courts were confronted in this extraordinary case in which a physician, who had found evidence of a hydrocephalic fetus, ordered her staff to schedule further testing of the patient.
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Medtronic's primary products include peacemaker systems used for the treatment of bradycardia, implantable tachyarrythmia management devices, ablations systems, mechanical and tissue heart valves, balloon and guiding catheters used in angloplasty, coronary and peripheral stents and stented grafts, interventional neuroradiology products, implantable neurostimulation and drug delivery systems, hydrocephalic shunts and other neurosurgical and perfusion systems including blood oxygenators, centrifugal blood pumps, cannulae products, and autotransfusion and blood monitoring systems and products used in minimally invasive cardiac surgery.
A hydrocephalic homunculus fingers holes in the sky, and, with idiot giggling, toys with rockets.