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(chemical engineering)
The reaction of adding hydrogen and the ‒CHO group to the carbon atoms across a double bond to yield oxygenated derivatives; an example is in the oxo process where the term hydroformylation applies to those reactions brought about by treating olefins with a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a cobalt catalyst.


An aldehyde synthesis process that falls under the general classification of a Fischer-Tropsch reaction but is distinguished by the addition of an olefin feed along with the characteristic carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In the oxo process for alcohol manufacture, hydroformylation of olefins to aldehydes is the first step. The second step is the hydrogenation of the aldehydes to alcohols. At times the term “oxo process” is used in reference to the hydroformylation step alone. In the hydroformylation step, olefin, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen are reacted over a cobalt catalyst to produce an aldehyde which has one more carbon atom than the feed olefin. As in the reaction below, the olefin conversion takes place by the addition of a formyl group (CHO) and a hydrogen atom across the double bond. See Fischer-Tropsch process

The aldehyde is then treated with hydrogen to form the alcohol. In commercial operations, the hydrogenation step is usually performed immediately after the hydroformylation step in an integrated system.

A wide range of carbon-number olefins, C2–C16, have been used as feeds. Propylene, heptene, and nonene are frequently used as feedstocks to produce normal and isobutyl alcohol, isooctyl alcohol, and primary decyl alcohol, respectively. Feed streams to oxo units may be single-carbon-number or mixed-carbon-number olefins.

The lower-carbon-number alcohols such as butanols are used primarily as solvents, while the higher-carbon-number alcohols go into the manufacture of plasticizers, detergents (surfactants), and lubricants.

References in periodicals archive ?
The new technology concept will be proven by two prominent large volume reaction types: a) Processes with undesired consecutive reactions like hydroformylation and b) Equilibrium driven reactions like water gas shift (WGS) reaction.
In the first step, hydroformylation reaction is carried out under low pressure in the presence of rhodium catalyst (LP Oxo process).
They cover metal-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl halides to form carbon-carbon bonds, metal-catalyzed carbon-hydrogen bond and carbon-carbon bond formation, catalytic nucleophilic additions of alkynes, water-soluble hydroformylation catalysis, green catalytic oxidations, hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation, catalytic rearrangements and allylation reactions, alkene metathesis, and nanocatalysis.
Guo, A, Demydov, D, Zhang, W, Petrovic, ZS, "Polyols and Polyurethanes from Hydroformylation of Soybean Oil.
Natural oil polyols (NOPs) can be prepared from fatty acid methyl esters derived from seed oils utilizing a novel hydroformylation technology.
Due to the advent of homogeneous biphasic catalysis in various reaction systems, such as hydroformylation, carbonylation, hydrogenation, and oligomerization (Herrmann and Kohlpaintner, 1993; Chaudhari et al.
Their general topics include high pressure NMR cells, the use of high pressure infrared spectroscopy to study catalytic mechanisms, processing spectroscopic data, carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid and methyl acetate to acetic anhydride, rhodium catalyzed hydroformylation, alkene/CO copolymerization, the use of spectroscopy in metallocene-based polymerization catalysis, and hydrogenation.
Leitner's group has prepared a poly(ethylene glycol)-supported phosphine ligand, which, when used as a component of a homogeneous hydroformylation catalyst in neat olefin, can be precipitated from the liquid aldehyde product by the application of supercritical C[O.
Amination, dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, polymerization, hydroformylation, hydrocarboxylation, phase transfer catalysis.
Conventional 1,4-Butanediol technologies: maleic anhydride/acid hydrogenation, Reppe acetylene, butadiene acetoxylation, propylene oxide hydroformylation, allyl alcohol hydroformylation
If we succeed, it will be a small revolution for chemical process engineering and a huge step toward more sustainable processes," says Professor Robert Franke, who works in the Performance Materials Segment of Evonik, where he leads innovation management for the hydroformylation process.
5]- alkanes with subsequent hydrolysis to produce a mixture of isomers and a low pressure oxo-process or hydroformylation of n-butenes followed by hydrogenation of the resultant iso-valeraldehyde (Kirk and Othmer, 2004).