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1. the study, surveying, and mapping of the oceans, seas, and rivers
2. the oceans, seas, and rivers as represented on a chart



the division of hydrology dedicated to describing bodies of water and their separate parts.

(1) The division of inland hydrology consists of the study and description of individual bodies of water, including rivers, lakes, and reservoirs (and their combination in a specific area), their location and geographical features, size, and course. The study of individual bodies of water provides information on their regular characteristics in such aspects as inland water distribution and the flow system. Hydrography is based on the systems and laws developed by general hydrology and physical geography. Another area of hydrography is the study of man-made changes that affect the course of bodies of water. The greatest amount of information on Soviet inland hydrography is found in the handbooks entitled Inland Water Resources of the USSR.

(2) The division of oceanography is devoted to the description of the subdivisions of the oceans. Oceanic hydrography is closely related to many scientific disciplines that study the ocean’s hydrometric course, geodesic fields of the oceans, the bottom and shores of oceans and seas, and the contour of the ocean floor.

The Hydrographie Service was organized in Russia in 1718 under the Collegium of the Admiralty, after the Admiralty had been given jurisdiction over this area of marine affairs. In 1827 the Administration of the Hydrographer General was established; it was changed in 1885 to the Central Hydro-graphic Administration.

The development of hydrography began in other countries during the first half of the 18th century: in France in 1720, in Great Britain and Holland in 1737, and in the USA in 1830.

There are many distinguished names connected with the development of scientific hydrography in Russia and the USSR, including A. A. Tillo, A. I. Vil’kitskii, Iu. M. Shokal’skii, V. M. Rodevich, E. V. Blizniak, and I. F. Mo-lodykh.


Blizniak, E. V., K. M. Ovchinnikov, and V. D. Bykov. Gidrografiia rek SSSR. Moscow, 1945.
Maksimov, G. S. “Gidrografiia kak nauka.” In Uchenye zapiski vysshego Arkticheskogo morskogo uchilishcha, vol. 1. Leningrad-Moscow, 1949.
Maksimov, G. S. Gidrografie he skaia opis’. Moscow-Leningrad, 1949.
Sheikin, P. A. Gidrograficheskie raboty na rekakh. Leningrad, 1949.
Nastavienie po rekognostsirovochnym g idro grafie he s kim iss ledo-vaniiam rek. Leningrad, 1949.
Davydov, L. K. Gidrografiia SSSR, vols. 1-2. Leningrad, 1953-55.
Glushkov, V. G. Voprosy teorii i metody gidrologicheskikh issle-dovanii. Moscow, 1961.
Belobrov, A. P. Gidrografiia moria. Moscow, 1964.
Sokolov, A. A. Gidrografiia SSSR. Leningrad, 1964.



Science which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of the oceans, lakes, rivers, and their adjoining coastal areas, with particular reference to their control and utilization.
Measurement of the tides and currents as an aid to navigation.
References in periodicals archive ?
According to Guimaraes and Magrini (2008), the systemic formulation of indicators for hydrographic basins with sources and well-defined elaboration procedures provides an information system that foregrounds their use in administration plans for hydrographical basins.
106) Article 38(1) states that "transit passage shall not apply if there exists seaward of the island a route through the high seas or through the exclusive economic zone of similar convenience with respect to navigational and hydrographical characteristics.
Among the predominant factors were the hydrographical network, the forest cover, the road network, geomorphological deposits and ethnic proximity.
The subject of the order is the delivery of two sets of hand-held hydrographical cranes together with electric motors.
Fish resources of aquatic ecosystems in Chad face several challenges, including a reduction in the hydrographical network, the unregulated fishing effort, the high fish juvenile predation, the imbalances in ichthyology fauna and the lake species composition (1).
The general aspect of the relief is given by the presence of a few long peaks, with north-south orientation, in accordance with the hydrographical network, discreetly separated from the mountain region by a series of smaller depressions and high passes.
Offshore wave data for the survey period was obtained from the Portuguese Hydrographical Institute.
By interrupting a river water flow, the dams play the role of 'event gatherers', thus providing significant information about the hydrographical basins.
Changes in the hydrographical network reflect the development of lakes Pelesa, Duba and Matarai, which preserved longest in the Dubiciai basin.
In order to establish the criteria by which are guided the next phases of the project, we studied the traditional lifting methods and scanning methods both land and hydrographical, the representative equipments, the principles of operation, the errors that may affect the measurements and the possibilities of integration.
Dynamics of fish larvae, zooplankton, and hydrographical characteristics in the West Greenland large marine ecosystem 1950-1984.