Radar reflectivity is inferred from the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver after scattering from hydrometeors
Zrnic, 2005: The Joint Polarization Experiment: Polarimetric rainfall measurements and hydrometeor
Gray (1973) suggested that the budgets that were obtained could be explained only if an average cloud affected its large-scale environment through a combination of dry compensating subsidence, which warmed the environment, and detrainment of hydrometeors
, which evaporated and thereby cooled the environment.
Heavy cloud liquid water (light bluewhite color) is denoted in the red circle encompassing the storm center, while red colors are associated with rain and frozen hydrometeors
, which heavily scattered the signal, depressing brightness temperatures [T.
However, these two goals are strongly interrelated because the physical mechanisms producing precipitation determine the vertical profiles of hydrometeors
detected by the satellite, and the statistical datasets used to design and refine algorithms must be accurately stratified into physically homogeneous zones relative to both storm structure and terrain.
Chandrasekar, 2000: Classification of hydrometeors
based on polarimetric radar measurements: Development of fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy systems, and in situ verification.
Garrett and his collaborators published a paper that describes the development and application of the Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC), which was designed to improve how hydrometeors
are incorporated into weather forecasting and remote-sensing models.
Joss, 2000: An optical disdrometer for measuring size and velocity of hydrometeors
Wicker, 2005: Centrifuging of hydrometeors
and debris in tornadoes: Radar-reflectivity patterns and wind-measurement errors.
Above the melting layer, the high-end tail of the wide spread in reflectivity suggests that graupel and other mixed-phase hydrometeors
are larger, more numerous, or both under polluted conditions.
Representative images of hydrometeors
obtained by a 2DC probe on the NOAA P-3 during the third spiral flown between 0440 and 0453 UTC 6 July 2015 through the developing trailing stratiform region are shown in Fig.
These W-band systems also have increased sensitivity to small hydrometeors
(Doviak and Zrnic 1993), and the data typically have lower measurement variances than longer-wavelength radars (Doviak and Zrnic 1993; Ellis and Vivekanandan 2011).