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Related to hyperaemia: hyperemia


An excess of blood within an organ or tissue caused by blood vessel dilation or impaired drainage, especially of the skin.



also plethora, an excess of blood in a tissue or organ. One may distinguish arterial and venous hyperemia. Arterial (active) hyperemia arises as a result of increased blood flow in the arteries owing to increased tonus of the vasodilator nerves or decreased tonus of the vasoconstrictor nerves. Among its causes are increased sensitivity of the blood vessels to physiological stimuli or the influence of extraordinary stimuli (such as bacterial toxins, high temperature, and products of tissue decomposition); in humans psychogenic factors (such as shame and anger) play a large role. Arterial hyperemia is characterized by dilatation of the arteries in the hyperemized area, elevation of temperature in the area, acceleration of blood flow, and reddening (for example, hyperemia of the face). It is accompanied by intensification of metabolic processes in the tissues and promotes the regeneration of tissues. Hemorrhages may occur during arterial hyperemia if there are pathological changes in the blood vessels. Arterial hyperemia is induced for therapeutic purposes by means of mustard plasters and cupping glasses. Venous (passive, static) hyperemia occurs when the outflow of blood along the veins is obstructed as a result of pressure on the venous wall (cicatrix, tumor, varicose dilatation of the veins, or edema), while the inflow remains unchanged or when there is a weakening of cardiac activity. Venous hyperemia is characterized by deceleration of blood flow to the point of complete stasis. Oxygen deficit develops in the tissues, the vascular walls become more permeable, and edema develops. Prolonged blood stasis and edema may lead to atrophy of the parenchyma of an organ.


References in periodicals archive ?
08) 75 heart rate) Laser Doppler measurements of capillary flow Postocclusive hyperaemia Rest flow median before 29.
Khan et al27 reported optic disc hyperaemia and optic neuritis secondary to INF therapy.
Within approximately 15 min a small raised area surrounded by hyperaemia occurs on the test site if there is an allergic reaction to latex on the patient.
8, may have different pathologies, including an extradural haematoma, subdural haematoma, cerebral ischaemia, cerebral hyperaemia, vasospasm, diffuse axonal injury, and/or focal haemorrhagic contusions.
Mahanty and Roemer [21] found that the temperature rise associated with reactive hyperaemia increases with increase in pressure magnitude and duration.
The most commonly reported side effects of Bimatoprost is conjunctival hyperaemia (i.
Contact lens associated papillary conjunctivitis (CLPC), with its typical raised papillae and hyperaemia of the tarsal conjunctiva, may cause contact lens wear to become difficult or impossible, as the rough tarsal surface can result in lens displacement.
05%, are available over the counter but are only effective in the short-term (seven days) owing to potential rebound hyperaemia with longerterm use.
There was no statistically significant difference after 14 days of Blink-N-Clean eye drop use in the measurement of hyperaemia (Wilcoxon matchedpairs signed-ranks tests, p=0.
There was also associated reduction in bulbar and palpebral hyperaemia, corneal staining and lid roughness.
Grading scores of key biomicroscopic ocular physiology measures (limbal and conjunctival hyperaemia, corneal staining and papillary conjunctivitis) are shown in Figure 3.