Hyperemia

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Related to hyperemic: reactive hyperemia, Hyperaemic

hyperemia

[‚hī·pə′rē·mē·ə]
(medicine)
An excess of blood within an organ or tissue caused by blood vessel dilation or impaired drainage, especially of the skin.

Hyperemia

 

also plethora, an excess of blood in a tissue or organ. One may distinguish arterial and venous hyperemia. Arterial (active) hyperemia arises as a result of increased blood flow in the arteries owing to increased tonus of the vasodilator nerves or decreased tonus of the vasoconstrictor nerves. Among its causes are increased sensitivity of the blood vessels to physiological stimuli or the influence of extraordinary stimuli (such as bacterial toxins, high temperature, and products of tissue decomposition); in humans psychogenic factors (such as shame and anger) play a large role. Arterial hyperemia is characterized by dilatation of the arteries in the hyperemized area, elevation of temperature in the area, acceleration of blood flow, and reddening (for example, hyperemia of the face). It is accompanied by intensification of metabolic processes in the tissues and promotes the regeneration of tissues. Hemorrhages may occur during arterial hyperemia if there are pathological changes in the blood vessels. Arterial hyperemia is induced for therapeutic purposes by means of mustard plasters and cupping glasses. Venous (passive, static) hyperemia occurs when the outflow of blood along the veins is obstructed as a result of pressure on the venous wall (cicatrix, tumor, varicose dilatation of the veins, or edema), while the inflow remains unchanged or when there is a weakening of cardiac activity. Venous hyperemia is characterized by deceleration of blood flow to the point of complete stasis. Oxygen deficit develops in the tissues, the vascular walls become more permeable, and edema develops. Prolonged blood stasis and edema may lead to atrophy of the parenchyma of an organ.

V. A. FROLOV

References in periodicals archive ?
When used externally the drug has a hyperemic and antiseptic effect due the essential oil content.
The hyperemic response induced by exercise within normal myocardium surrounding these areas could mask their underperfusion, which becomes evident at rest.
Independent of the cause the conjunctival tissue is edematous and hyperemic locally or diffusely.
Visual inspection revealed swollen, edematous and hyperemic penis protruding from the prepuce and a darkened area was noted in the center of the protruding penile tissue (Fig.
Physical examination showed a hyperemic and painful right conjunctiva, enlarged (0.
The hyperemic response was measured as the percent change from baseline to the point of maximal reactive hyperemia following release of the forearm cuff occlusion.
Anterior rhinoscopyrevealed anterior septal deviation to the right with purulent secretion in the nasal fossae; postnasal purulent discharge; hyperemic tonsils; whitish, nonbleeding plaque adhering to the mucosa and covering the entire oropharynx; and four mobile, parenchymatous, painless, submandibular ganglia measuring 1 cm in diameter.
10 The best Doppler sonographic sign of appendiceal rupture is a hyperemic periappendiceal fluid collection.
His examination was remarkable for a body mass index of 30, hyperemic conjunctivae, boggy nasal mucosa, an erythematous urticarial rash on his right shoulder, and diffuse expiratory wheezing.
2] saturation between patients with normal and hyperemic flow at different points was made by ANOVA, which examined the variation and tested whether the between-group variation was greater than the within-group variation.
Clinical evidence has shown that skin trauma produces a local hyperemic response as a result of a local (sterile) inflammatory reaction following a 10-min vasoconstriction (4).
Modality software, allowing physicians and patients around the globe to benefit from the simplified workflow, and reduced need for hyperemic agents.