Hyperemia

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Related to hyperemic: reactive hyperemia, Hyperaemic

hyperemia

[‚hī·pə′rē·mē·ə]
(medicine)
An excess of blood within an organ or tissue caused by blood vessel dilation or impaired drainage, especially of the skin.

Hyperemia

 

also plethora, an excess of blood in a tissue or organ. One may distinguish arterial and venous hyperemia. Arterial (active) hyperemia arises as a result of increased blood flow in the arteries owing to increased tonus of the vasodilator nerves or decreased tonus of the vasoconstrictor nerves. Among its causes are increased sensitivity of the blood vessels to physiological stimuli or the influence of extraordinary stimuli (such as bacterial toxins, high temperature, and products of tissue decomposition); in humans psychogenic factors (such as shame and anger) play a large role. Arterial hyperemia is characterized by dilatation of the arteries in the hyperemized area, elevation of temperature in the area, acceleration of blood flow, and reddening (for example, hyperemia of the face). It is accompanied by intensification of metabolic processes in the tissues and promotes the regeneration of tissues. Hemorrhages may occur during arterial hyperemia if there are pathological changes in the blood vessels. Arterial hyperemia is induced for therapeutic purposes by means of mustard plasters and cupping glasses. Venous (passive, static) hyperemia occurs when the outflow of blood along the veins is obstructed as a result of pressure on the venous wall (cicatrix, tumor, varicose dilatation of the veins, or edema), while the inflow remains unchanged or when there is a weakening of cardiac activity. Venous hyperemia is characterized by deceleration of blood flow to the point of complete stasis. Oxygen deficit develops in the tissues, the vascular walls become more permeable, and edema develops. Prolonged blood stasis and edema may lead to atrophy of the parenchyma of an organ.

V. A. FROLOV

References in periodicals archive ?
A, Endoscopy showing an elevated and hyperemic lesion.
While hematomas are devoid of color Doppler flow, adjacent tissues may be mildy hyperemic.
Lack of neutrophils associated with slight inflammatory infiltrate was observed in the cystic capsule (Table 2), and, when present, they were associated with congested and hyperemic blood vessels (p < 0.
In all 28 patients, the disease started as a poorly defined area of tender hyperemic erythema with progression to healthy tissue.
On pysical examination, the axillary fever was found to be 39 [degrees]C, the sclerae were subicteric, a hyperemic and adherent lymphadenomegaly with a size of 5x5 cm was found in the right cervical region and hepatosplenomegaly was present.
The study revealed four types of personality changes, to mention unstable, hysteroid or demonstrative, hyperemic and psychoastenic.
Any new dentin deposits forming at this time are now similar to osteodentin; the pulp atrophies and is hyperemic.
In liver and in the lungs numerous grayish-white nodules diameter to 5 mm surrounded with hyperemic zone were found.
An increase in brachial diameter < 5% to hyperemic flow stimulus was defined a priori as endothelial dysfunction.
Reactive hyperemia is mediated mainly by local blood flow control mechanisms [51-52] Thus, people with SCI still show a reactive hyperemic response after blood occlusion [24].
Black mud containing hyperemic and some antibacterial properties can be found on the lakes shores.