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Pathophysiologic classification of thrombocytopenia Decreased Production Increased Destruction * Hematologic malignancies Immune * Aplastic anemia * ITP * Myelodysplasia * HIT * Drugs: chemotherapy, alcohol * Drug-induced antibodies * Radiation * HIV * HIV * Post transfusion purpura * Vitamin D deficiencies * Connective tissue diseases * Hereditary thrombocytopenias Nonimmune * Metastatic cancer to bone marrow * DIC * Sepsis * Cardiac valves * TTP-HUS * Kasabach Merrit syndrome Splenic Sequestration * Hypersplenism HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; ITP, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura; HIT, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia; DIC, disseminated intravascular coagulation; TTP-HUS, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-hemolytic uremic syndrome.
Partial splenic embolization versus splenectomy for the management of hypersplenism in cirrhotic patients.
11) Some reported cases were associated with hypersplenism, such as thrombocytopenia, anemia, and pancytopenia, or hematologic conditions, including malignancy.
Chronic anemia in thalassemic patients is managed with blood transfusion, iron chelation, and splenectomy in cases of hypersplenism.
Background: Littoral cell angiomas are distinctive splenic tumors that present with signs of hypersplenism and splenomegaly or may be discovered during evaluation for coexisting clinical conditions.
Patients with thrombocytopenia of multiple origin (decreased production and increased destruction, hypersplenism, or myelodysplastic syndromes), who presented with both decreased production rates and increased platelet destruction, were not included in this study (n = 25).
Approach to anaemia in HIV Reduced red cell production Increased red cell loss Related to HIV Related to HIV Infection Haemolysis HIV itself, mycobacteriae, TTP, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia parvovirus, fungi Malignancy Blood loss High-grade NHL, HL Gastrointestinal, high-grade NHL, Kaposi sarcoma, infection (CMV, Drugs Candida) Zidovudine, co-trimoxazole, isoniazid Hypersplenism Anaemia of chronic disease Infection, lymphoma Unrelated to HIV Unrelated to HIV Haematinic deficiencies Haemolysis Iron, vitamin [B.
On the other hand, in patients with hypersplenism and autoimmune hemolysis the aim is to decrease the sequestration and destruction functions of the spleen while preserving its immune functions.
Abstract: Hypersplenism is a known complication of portal hypertension secondary to cirrhosis of the liver.
18) Patients with acquired cytopenia included the following: 2 with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia and 1 each with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, systemic lupus erythematosus, orotic aciduria, osteomyelitis, chronic renal failure, inflammatory bowel disease, anemia of chronic disease, hypothyroidism, and liver disease with hypersplenism.
However, in hospitalized patients, quantitative differences in blood analytes may be accentuated, particularly when intravascular erythrocyte destruction is expected to occur, such as in bacterial or viral infections (5), hypersplenism, cardiac and hepatic abnormalities (6), exposure to venoms and toxins (6), and the use of oxidant drugs (7).
Splenectomized patients are probably heavily transfused with blood before splenectomy due to hypersplenism.
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