retinopathy

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retinopathy

[‚ret·ən′äp·ə·thē]
(medicine)
Any pathologic condition involving the retina.
References in periodicals archive ?
After adjustment for age, sex, blood pressure, and other risk factors such as body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption, those with moderate hypertensive retinopathy were found to have a significantly greater risk of stroke than those without retinopathy (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.
In the subset of all patients with well-controlled hypertension, the stroke risk in those with mild and moderate/severe hypertensive retinopathy was significantly increased compared with patients without retinopathy (adjusted HR for mild retinopathy, 1.
Histopathologic studies suggest that these hypertensive retinopathy lesions result from small vessel arteriosclerosis, and continued elevated blood pressure results in retinal ischemia and breakdown of the blood-retina barrier.
Grade 1 consisted of 'mild' generalized retinal arteriolar narrowing; Grade 2 consisted of 'more severe' generalized narrowing, focal areas of arteriolar narrowing and arteriovenous nicking; Grade 3 consisted of grades 1 and 2 signs plus the presence of retinal hemorrhages, microaneurysms, hard exudates and cotton-wool spots; Grade 4 also referred to as accelerated (malignant) hypertensive retinopathy, consisted of the signs in the preceding three grades plus optic disk swelling and macular edema.
Hypertensive retinopathy may present as bilateral scattered flame haemorrhages, with or without microinfarcts.
Similarly, if there are the bilateral scattered flame haemorrhages with arteriolar constriction suggestive of hypertensive retinopathy, then urgent medical intervention should be sought, within 24 hours, either from the GP or the local hospital emergency department.
Hypertensive retinopathy represents the ophthalmic findings of end- organ damage secondary to systemic arterial hypertension.
Diffuse arteriolar narrowing is characteristic of hypertensive retinopathy.
The Keith-Wagener-Barket classification is commonly used to classify hypertensive retinopathy.
There is the Scheie system (1) of classification for grading fundal changes in hypertensive retinopathy (Table 1).
Ophthalmic findings in acute malignant hypertensive retinopathy include focal arteriolar narrowing, cotton wool spots, intra-retinal transudates, macular oedema and retinal haemorrhages.

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