hypertrophy


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hypertrophy

(hīpûr`trəfē), enlargement of a tissue or organ of the body resulting from an increase in the size of its cells. Such growth accompanies an increase in the functioning of the tissue. In normal physiology the growth in size of muscles (e.g., in an athlete as a result of increased exercise) and also the enlargement of a uterus in pregnancy are caused by hypertrophy of muscle cells. In pathology the thickening of the heart muscle from overstrain, as in hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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 (high blood pressure), is the result of hypertrophy. An organ subjected to extra work (e.g., the one kidney left to function after surgical removal of the other) usually compensates by enlarging; in such cases hyperplasia, an increase in the number of cells, generally accompanies hypertrophy.

Hypertrophy

 

an increase in the volume of a body organ or of any of its parts.

Hypertrophy in man (or in animals) may occur either as the result of the enlargement of the individual component elements of an organ (cells and tissues) or as the result of an increase in their quantity (hyperplasia). True hypertrophy and false hypertrophy are distinguished. The former includes enlargement in volume or mass of specific elements as the result of an increased functional load (so-called functional, or compensatory, hypertrophy) or disruption of the regulatory influences of the nervous and endocrine systems. Functional hypertrophy may appear in healthy persons who are occupied with physical labor, such as in athletes (“physiologic hypertrophy” of the muscles). It may also appear upon affection of a part of any organ, such as after heart failure (compensatory hypertrophy) or after the destruction of a paired organ, such as a kidney (vicarious hypertrophy). Compensation for the impaired functions occurs in all instances of functional hypertrophy. Examples of hypertrophy occurring as a result of the disruption of neuroendocrine influences include acromegaly and gynecomastia; in these cases the hypertrophy has no compensatory significance but is accompanied by considerable disturbances of function. False hypertrophy refers to enlargement of the organ as the result of excessive growth of the interstitial, most often the adipose, tissue in response to atrophy of the parenchyma (the functional tissue). Function of the organ in such cases is usually decreased.

L. L. SHIMKEVICH

Hypertrophy of plant organs is the result of an increase in the size of their cells. The hypertrophy may be the effect of increased synthesis of the substances of the cell membrane or cytoplasm, deposits of reserve compounds, or the development of polynucleosis or polyploidy. The causes of hypertrophy include disruption of the synthesis and metabolism of phenol compounds, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, as well as deficiency of trace elements. The condition may also be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, invertebrates, and plant parasites. It may accompany many mutations, grafts, and the effects on the plant of ionizing radiation or ultrasound. Hypertrophy is usually interconnected with hyperplasia and disruptions of tissue differentiation in the organs. In many instances (for example, when there is development of tumors or galls) hypertrophy follows cell division; after mechanical injury and physical or chemical effects, however, it is often primary. Hypertrophy is observed in higher as well as in lower plants.

E. I. SLEPIAN

hypertrophy

[hī′pər·trə·fē]
(pathology)
Increase in cell size causing an increase in the size of an organ or tissue.

hypertrophy

enlargement of an organ or part resulting from an increase in the size of the cells
References in periodicals archive ?
Professor Nikolai Zhelev, who is leading the research, said: "There is a long way to go before the drugs become available commercially, but we hope that we will one day be able to stop heart hypertrophy developing in those at risk.
Cardiac hypertrophy, which afflicts one in 500 people, can be caused by high blood pressure or inherited through genes that control contraction of the heart.
This case emphasises that early after mitral valve repair, SAM could be a cause of cardiogenic shock, especially when an anatomical predisposing factor like mild basal septal hypertrophy is combined with postoperative dobutamine, as pointed out by Auer et aP.
Figure 1) Scatter plot indicates left ventricular hypertrophy as the explanatory variable, and creatinine as the response variable.
During a follow-up period as long as 24 years (with a median 9-year follow-up), 236 men who had left ventricular hypertrophy and were within the lower 50th percentile of physical fitness were 20% more likely to die, compared with 225 men in a reference group who did not have left ventricular hypertrophy and also had a low level of fitness.
Our main finding was hypertrophy of the FDP in the fourth finger on the string hands of the archers.
The present case is unique on account; entailing an adult woman with an isolated segment of idiopathic muscular hypertrophy of the second part of the duodenum causing gastric outlet obstruction.
Neither of these 2 miRNAs had previously been reported as deregulated in cardiac hypertrophy and other heart diseases.
The researchers excluded men whose serum concentrations of prostate specific antigen were more than 10 [micro]g/l and any who had recently taken drugs for benign prostatic hypertrophy.
However, the most characteristic feature in patients with ISH is gingival hypertrophy, which, at a later stage, is followed by labial and buccal hypertrophy.
CHICAGO -- Labioplasty resulted in high rates of satisfaction and few complications in what is being described as the largest series of pediatric and adolescent females undergoing labioplasty for symptomatic labial hypertrophy.